HORDI Crop – Pumpkin

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Pumpkin

Cucurbita maxima

Released Varieties

Climate requirements/ Areas suitable for cultivation

These crops may be grown to an elevation of 500 m in the dry and intermediate zones. Pumpkin is grown as a Yala Crops, While squash can be grown in either Maha or Yala.

Soil

Soil should be rich in humus with a pH range of 5.5 – 7.5

Seed requirement

1 kg/ha

Land preparation

a) Plough to a depth of about 20-30 cm and harrow for fine tilth.

b)Make planting holes 30 x 30 x 30 cm

c) Add 5 kg organic matter per planting hole, mix with soil and heap to about 10 cm above ground level.

Planting

Plant after heavy rains.

a) Local Strains and A.N.K.

i) Dibble 4 seeds/planting hole (10 cm between seeds)

b)Butternut

i) Seeds with high germination – 2 seeds/hill

ii) Seeds with low germination – 3 seeds/hill

iii)Thin to 2 plants/hill 2 weeks after emergence

iv)To avoid adverse effects of unfavourable weather conditions seedlings can also be raised in polythene bags or Noridoko nurseries

Spacing

a) Local Strain – 3 x 3m

b) A.N.K. – 2.5 x 2.5 m

c) Butternut – 50 x 100 cm

Fertilizer

N -140 kg/ha, P2O5-175 kg/ha, K2O – 105 kg/ha

 

Urea

kg/ha

TSP

kg/ha

MOP

kg/ha

Basal220380125
Top dressing – apply 4 and 8 weeks after planting4525

Water supply

a) For irrigation or drainage purposes make shallow drains 25 cm away from the planting hill.

b) Irrigate daily until germination is complete and every 7 days thereafter

C)Irrigate until beds come to field capacity, taking care not to submerge vines.

Weed Control

Hand weed and apply a straw mulch 3 weeks after gerination

Harvesting

Harvest when fruit develops a powdery film.

1 pumpkin

a)A.N.K. – Harvest 40 days after flowering

b) Local Variety – Harvest 60days after flowering

2 Butternut – harvest 20 days after flowering

 

Yield

 Average yeilds for all varieties vary from 15,000 – 20,000 kg/ha

Post-harvest

a) Pumpkins can be stored for 6 – 8 months

b) Butternut can be kept for about 1 month under ambient conditions

Pest Management

Disease Management

  • Fungal diseases

Causal organism: Podosphaera xanthii

Symptoms:

  • First appears as pale yellow spots on older leaves
  • These spots enlarge as the white, fluffy mycelium grows over leaves surfaces
  • Severely attacked leaves become brown and shrivelled and defoliation may occur

Management:

  • Use recommended fungicides at initial stage of disease development (Refer: Pesticide recommendation DOA, 2019)
  • Distraction of infected plant debris after harvest

 Causal organism: Pseudoperonospora cubensis 

Symptoms:

  • Angular yellow spots that are limited by the leaf veins on the upper surface of the leaves.
  • Leaves become chlorotic and finally necrotic and host plant cells die

Management:

  • Use recommended fungicides at initial stage of disease development (Refer: Pesticide recommendation DOA, 2019)
  • Distraction of infected plant debris after harvest

Causal organisms:  Sclerotium spp., Fusarium spp.

Symptoms:

  • Initially the plants show temporary wilting symptoms
  • The leaves yellowing, loose turgidity and show drooping
  • Eventually, the plant dies.
  • Vascular bundles in the collar region become yellow or brown.

Management:

  • Destroy infected plants with soil
  • Improved drainage
  • Use recommended fungicides at initial stage of disease development (Refer: Pesticide recommendation DOA, 2019)

Causal organisms: Didymella bryoniae

Symptoms:

  • Lesions on leaves and fruit usually begin as spreading water-soaked areas
  • The former these may have a chlorotic halo, become light brown and irregular in outline
  • Dark cracked sunken lesions on fruit
  • Plant collapse where sunken, girdling cankers
  • Spots on stems often elongate into streaks and gummy exudates may occur from cracks
  • Dark brown to black fruiting bodies (pycnidia) can be seen on fruit, stem, or leaf

Management:

  • Crop debris should be ploughed deeply immediately after harvest to reduce fungus survival
  • Use recommended fungicides at initial stage of disease development (Refer: Pesticide recommendation DOA, 2019)
  • Bacterial diseases

Causal organism: Ralstonia solanacearum

Symptoms:

  • Sudden drooping of leaves
  • Whole plant finally wilts
  • Leaves become brown, dry
  • Vascular discoloration (Brown)
  • Permanent wilting

Spreading of pathogen by;

  • Infected soil,  water, plant debris, Nematodes and insects ,pruning, Weeds as host plants

Disease Diagnosis: slimy viscous Bacterial ooze comes out from cut end of affected parts when immersing in clear water. 

Management:

  • Destroy infected plants with soil
  • Crop rotation with non- susceptible crops (okra , maize)
  • Mixed cropping with cruciferae crops
  • Avoid movement of equipment from infected fields to non- infected fields
  • Viral diseases

Transmitted by white fly (Bemicia tabaci)

Symptoms:

  • upward curling, shortening, and distortion of leaves
  • Plant stunted and fruits deformed.
Transmitted by aphids Symptoms:
  • Mosaic and mottling of leaves
  • leaf distortion
  • Malformation of fruits and reduction in fruit size
  • In severe infections, oily patches on the fruit surface

Transmission: Seed borne, through sap

Symptoms:

  • Green mottle, leaf deformation
  • Green spot on fruits, turn bright yellow and decaying fruit
  • fruit malformation.

Symptoms:

  • Stunting, yellowing, necrosis (occasionally), mosaic, leaf deformations (blisters, shoe stringing)
  • Fruit discolorations and deformations
  • Pytoplasma Disease
Disease symptoms Smaller, thickened and yellowish green leaves Shortened internodes and stunting of  plants Witch’s broom symptom Greening of flowers Disease Transmission Through leaf hoppers Through infected seeds Disease control Remove infected plants Control vectors (leaf hoppers) using a recommended insecticide