HORDI Crop – Cabbage

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Cabbage

Brassica oleraceae Capitata group

Cabbage is belong to Brassicaceae family. It can be grown all the agro-ecological regions.

Released Varieties

Climate requirements/ Areas suitable for cultivation

Cabbage can be cultivated successfully in cool climatic condition in up country area. Heat tolerance varieties can be cultivated in dry zone.

Soil

Well drain loamy soil with adequate amount of organic matter is good for cabbage. Best pH range is 6-6.5. Club root dieses incidence is higher when low soil pH or acidic soil.

Seed requirement

200-250 g/ha

Nursery Management

For nurseries, 1 x 3 m size, 15 cm height raised beds are necessary. Add media (compost: top soil- 1:1 ratio mixture) to the nursery bed up to 5-8 cm. Established seed in 10 cm apart rows to the depth of 1 cm. Cover the seed using sterilized soil and mulch over the bed. Remove mulch after seedling are germinated.

Land preparation

Plough up to depth of 40 cm. Add lime for acidic soil.

Planting

Seedlings have to hardening about one week before planting. Irrigate twice a day after transplanting.

Spacing

40 x 50 cm

Fertilizer

Organic matter- 10 t/ ha

Time of applicationUrea kg/haTSP kg/haMOP kg/ha
Basal11027075
After 3 weeks11075
After 6 weeks11075

Water supply

Head development stage is most crucial period for water. Just after transplanting, irrigate twice a day. After that irrigate once a day.

Weed Control

Weeds are control with the intercultural operations. Weeds have to control before apply top dressing of fertilizer.

Pest Management

Damage symptoms

The larva is a small, green colour surface feeder. Although the larvae are small, with its chewing mouthparts it feeds voraciously on the leaves leaving a papery epidermis intact. In severe infestation, result complete removal of foliar tissue except for the leaf veins and disturb the head formation in cabbage.

Damage symptoms

All cruciferous plants at all stages of growth are attacked by cabbage loopers. The larvae make large irregular holes in the underside of leaves and consume developing cabbage heads. In severe infestation, consume the leaves completely and result skelotinising leaves. In addition larval excrement is found at the base of the leaves.

Damage symptoms

  • Irregular holes on leaves initially and later skeletonization of leaves
  • Management of cabbage caterpillar complex
  • Proper nursery management
  • Regular field monitoring
  • Crop rotation
  • Destroy crop residual after harvesting
  • Proper field sanitation

Protect the predators and parasitoids by avoiding the use of broad-spectrum pesticides unnecessarily

Chemical control

  • Emamectin benzoate 5%SG at the rate of 8g/16l of water
  • Etofenprox 100g/l EC at the rate of 24 ml/16l of water
  • Chlorfluazuron 50g/l EC at the rate of 16ml/16l of water
  • Bistrifluron 100g/l EC at the Rate of 24 ml/16l of water
  • Tebufenozide 200g/l SC at the Rate of 24 ml/16l of water
  • Chromafenozide 50g/l SC at the Rate of 32 ml/16l of water
  • Chlorantraniliprole 200g/ SC at the Rate of 6ml/16l of water
  • Lufenuron 50g/l EC at the Rate of 16ml/16l of water
  • Spinosad 25g/l SC at the Rate of 16ml/16l of water
  • Flubendiamide 24% WG at the Rate of 6ml/16l of water

Damage symptoms

Habitually they are nocturnal. Early instars make round holes in leaves. Later, the shoots are damaged close to the ground, often cut the whole plant at the base, during emergence. Cut several plants in a single night and pulling the plant stem belowground.  Cut plants show wilting during day time.

Management

  • Regular monitoring
  • Hand collecting and destroying
  • Weed management
  • Proper field sanitation

Plough the soil deeply to bring the larvae and pupa to the surface of the soil

Encourage predatory birds to preying the worms during tillage operation

Chemical control

  • Profenophos 500 g/l EC at the rate of 32 ml per 16 l of water
  • Etofenprox 100g/l EC at the rate of 24 ml per 16 l of water

80-90% distribution occurs with transportation of organic matter and larvae feed on the developing shoot and young roots of the developing seedling

Damage symptoms

  • Wilting leaves and plants shrivel.
  • Pull up the damage plants; you will see the tiny root maggots on the roots

Management

  • Regular field monitoring
  • Crop rotation
  • Place yellow sticky traps around the field edges just above the growing cabbages.
  • Remove and burn infected plants
  • Plough the soil to bring the pupa to the surface of the soil
  • Application of properly decomposed FYM/compost

Chemical control

  • Fipronil 50 SC

Damage symptom

  • Suck the sap from the plant and contaminate the edible products. Malformation of the leaves

Management

  • Monitoring aphids’ population visually or placing yellow colour water trap.
  • Weed control in crop fields to reduce the availability of alternate host plants
  • Protect the predators and parasitoids by avoiding the use of broad-spectrum pesticides unnecessarily

Chemical control

  • Thiamethoxam 25% WG at the rate of 5g per 16 l of water
  • Imidacloprid 70%WG at the rate of 2g per 16 l of water
  • Thiocyclam (Hydrogen Oxalate) 50% SP at the rate of 40g per 16 l of water
  • Chlorantraniliprole 20% + Thiamethoxam 20% WG at the rate of 5g per 16 l of water
  • Buprofezin 25% SC at the rate of 45ml per 16 l of water
  • Azadirachtine 5%EC at the rate of 16ml per 16 l of water

Damage is severe during high rainfall conditions

Damage symptoms

  • Irregular holes on leaves
  • Management
  • Eliminate place where can shelter during day time
  • Regular practice of trapping and removing snails
  • Removing debris and manage field sanitations
  • Proper weed management
  • Regular field infection and hand collection
  • Encourage predatory birds by enhance natural habitats

Chemical control

  • Metaldehyde 5% GR at the rate of 10-40 Kg/ha

Disease Management

  • Use of disease free planting materials
  • Increase soil pH by adding lime
  • Crop rotation with non cruciferous crops
  • Remove weed host plants
  • Use clean equipment
  • Filed sanitation
  • Recommended fungicides –Maneb, Mancozeb, Propineb, Tebuconazole
  • Use of healthy seeds
  • Filed sanitation
  • Maintain proper drainage
  • Crop rotation
  • Continuous field monitoring and destroy infected plants
  • Filed sanitation
  • Recommended fungicides- Chlorothalonil
  • Use of healthy planting materials
  • Field sanitation
  • Remove alternate host weeds
  • Avoid overlapping of plants by keeping proper spacing
  • Chemical control – Hexaconazole, Tebuconazole
  • Filed sanitation
  • Weed control
  • Chemical control – Captan, Maneb, Mancozeb

Harvesting

Crop can be harvest 90-110 days after planting.

Yield

40-45 t/ha