HORDI Crop – Brinjal

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Brinjal

Solanum melongena

Brinjal is considered as a highly marketable nutritious crop

Released Varieties

Climate requirements/ Areas suitable for cultivation

Crop can be grown up to 1300 m above sea level.

Soil

Well drained soil is suitable, pH range from 5.5 – 5.8

Seed requirement

350g/ha

Nursery Management

3m x 1m beds in better sunlight conditions are suitable. Beds should be sterilized. Add 1:1 ratio of surface soil and cow dung. Seeds should be placed in rows in 6 inches spacing.

Land preparation

Zero tillery or ploughed soil should be prepared and 30m x 30m x 30m holes are suitable

Planting

25-30 days old plants can be established in prepared holes as one plant per hole

Spacing

90cm x 60cm

Fertilizer

Time of application

Urea kg/ha

TSP kg/ha

MOP  kg/ha

Basal

75

325

85

After 4 weeks

75

After 8 weeks

75

85

 

 

 

 

Water supply

Better to supply water for better growth

Weed Control

2,4,7,9,12 days after planting , better to remove weeds

Pest Management

Disease Management

  • Fungal diseases
Causal organism: Pythium spp.,  Phytophthora spp., Fusarium spp.,  Rhizoctonia spp. and  Sclerotium rolfsii Symptoms:
  • Sudden collapsing seedlings at the base of the stem
  • Root rot and seedling death
  • Brownish black discoloration at the base due to Rhizoctonia spp
Management
  • Prepare nursery beds in well drained virgin soil
  • Nursery sterilization – burning, solarization or with chemicals
  • Remove affected plants with the adjacent soil
  • Seed treatment (should be done just before seeding)
-Thiram 80% WP  – 5g/ kg -Thiophanate-methyl  50% WP  + Thiram  30% WP –  4g/ kg -Captan 50% WP  – 6g/ kg.
  • Soil treatment – Drench with a recommended fungicide around the base of the plant as spot application
– Thiophanate-methyl 50% WP  + Thiram 30% WP  –  50g/50l / 10m2 – Thiram 80% WP –  70g/50l    10m2 – Captan  50% WP  –  60g/50l / 10m2
Causal organism: Sclerotium rolfsii  Symptoms:
  • Yellowing of leaves
  • Decaying near collar region
  • Mycelia mat with white / brown Sclerotia on collar region
Management
  • Destroy affected plants with the adjacent soil
  • Improve drainage
  • Deeply plough the land and expose to affected soil to bright sunlight
  • Avoid root damage at transplanting
  • Soil treatment – Drench with a recommended fungicide around the base of the plant as spot application
– Thiophanate-methyl 50% WP  + Thiram 30% WP  –  50g/50l / 10m2 – Thiram 80% WP –  70g/50l / 10m2 – Captan  50% WP  –  60g/50l / 10m2

Causal organism: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp lycopersici

 Symptoms:

  • Yellowing of leaves and wilt
  • Vascular discoloration of stem
  • Root rot and dying of the plant

Management

  • Destroy affected plants with the adjacent soil
  • Improve drainage
  • Deeply plough the land and expose to affected soil to bright sunlight
  • Avoid root damage at transplanting         
  • Soil treatment – Drench with a recommended fungicide around the base of the plant as spot application

– Thiophanate-methyl 50% WP  + Thiram 30% WP  –  50g/50l / 10m2

– Thiram 80% WP –  70g/50l / 10m2                                             

– Captan  50% WP  –  60g/50l / 10m2   

Causal organism: Podosphaera xanthii
Symptoms:
  • Circular yellow patches or spots appear on the lower surface of the leaves.
  • White powdery residue on the upper leaf surface.
Management:                                                                          
  • Use recommended fungicides at initial stage of disease development (Refer: Pesticide recommendation DOA, 2019)
    • Apply sulfur 80% WG 50 g/10 l of water
    • Chlorothalonil 500g/l SC- 30 ml/10 l of water
    • Carbendazim 50% WP- 7 g/10 l of water
Causal organism: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides              Symptoms:
  • Sunken circular lesions with tan to orange to black concentric rings in their center
  • Fruiting bodies with pink masses of conidia may ooze from lesions
Management
  • Use of healthy seeds
  • Avoid excess overhead irrigation
  • Remove and destroy infected fruits
  • Seed treatment (should be done just before seeding)
–Thiram 80% WP  – 5g/ kg -Thiophanate-methyl  50% WP  + Thiram  30% WP –  4g/ kg -Captan 50% WP  – 6g/ kg.
  • Foliar application of fungicides start at flowering stage in rainy season
– Fluzinam 500g/1 SC – 10 ml/10l of water – Metiram 55% +  Pyraclostrobin 5%  WP  – 20 g/10l  of water – Cabendazim 50%  WG  – 7 g/10l   of water – Thiophanate-methyl  70% WP  –  6g/10l of water –  Chlorothalonil 500 SC  – 30ml/10l of water
Causal organism: Phomopsis vexans       Symptoms
  • Small canker gray spots with black margins appear on stem and petioles
  • Center of the spot becomes gray and black due to pycnidia development
  • Soft and watery fruit spots become black and mummified
Management
  • Remove and destruction of infected fruits
  • Use recommended fungicides at initial stage of disease development (Refer: Pesticide recommendation DOA, 2019)
-Chlorothalonil 500g/l SC- 30 ml/10 l of water -Carbendazim 50% WP- 7 g/10 l of water – Thiophanate-methyl  70% WP  of 6g/10l  of water
  • Bacterial diseases
Causal organism: Ralstonia solanacearum Symptoms:
  • Slight wilting of single branch/ branches
  • Sudden and permanent wilting of entire plant
  • Discoloration of the vascular tissues
  • Slimy viscous bacterial ooze comes out from the cut end of affected parts when immersed in clear
Management
  • Remove and destroy affected plants with soil
  • Destroy crop debris after harvesting
  • Crop rotation with non-susceptible crop (cruciferous vegetables and okra) help in reducing the disease incidence
  • Use of resistant varieties
  • Disinfect all farm implements/tools with bleach after they have been
  • No chemical controlling method
  • Phytoplasma disease
Causal organism: Phytoplasma The disease is transmitted by a leaf hopper(Hishimonus phycitiy) Symptoms
  • leaves are narrow, soft, smooth and yellow
  • Internodes of the stem become shorten
  • Auxiliary buds get enlarged but their petioles and leaves remain shortened and give the plant a bushy appearance.
  • flowers remain green/ no flowering
  • Fruiting is rare
Management • Remove and burn infected plants. • Control leaf hopper with recommended insecticides to minimize disease spread.

Harvesting

Harvesting can be started 10-12 weeks after transplanting. Fruit can be harvested 7 days intervals up to 10-12 picks.

Yield

Potential yield depends on the variety. OPV gives 18-20 t/ha and hybrids give 30- 40 t/ha