Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Bean belongs to the family Fabaceae and Genus Phaseolus. It is widely cultivated in Badulla, Nuwara Eliya, Matale and Kandy Districts. Areas with high temperature (>32 ⁰C) and continuous high rainfall is unsuitable for bean cultivation. Temperature should be less than 30⁰C at the time of flowering because high temperature adversely effect on flowering and pod setting. Although bean is mainly cultivated in Up Country Intermediate Zone, it can also be cultivated in Up Country Wet Zone.
Bean varieties can be categorized into two types based on their growth habit as vine types or “pole bean” and bush types or “Bush bean”. Vine types are the most popular among farmers and consumers as well. Pole bean varieties grow continuously and need supports (stakes) to grow upright. Pods are bigger in size and light in color. Bush beans doesn’t produce much yield and pods are dark green. Its normally cultivate as an intermediate crop between two main cropping seasons
Vine types (Pole Bean)
Bush types (Bush Bean)
Climatic requirements/ Areas suitable for cultivation
Up Country Intermediate Zone and Up-Country Wet Zone (Badulla, Nuwara Eliya, Matale and Kandy Districts) are the most suitable areas for cultivation
Red Yellow Podzolic soil with good drainage and loam or sandy loam texture are ideal for cultivation. Soil with lots of clay tends to be poorly drained, which can cause root rot and blossom drop. Optimum l soil pH for better growth should be around 5.5-6.5.
Vine type – 50kg/ha
Bush type- 75kg/ha
Nursery management/time of planting
No nursery needed, direct seeding is the commonly practiced.
Badulla District –
- Maha season – November and December
- Yala Season – March and April
Plough soils to make fine tilth and prepare beds which can accommodate three rows. Mark planting holes in recommended spacing.
Soak seeds for about 24 hrs. before planting. Plant about 3-4 seeds per planting hole fairly away from each other. Keep beds well-watered. Two weeks after germination, keep two healthy seeding per planting hole and remove the other seedlings.
Vine types – 50 cm between rows and 40 cm between plants
Bush types – 50 cm between rows and 15 cm between plants
Add 10 t of well decomposed organic manure five or six days before seeding and recommended quantity of synthetic fertilizers (basal dressing) one to two days before seeding.
Time of application
Triple supper phosphate (kg/Ha)
Muriate of potash (kg/Ha)
Top dressing (three weeks after planting)
Top dressing (three weeks after planting)
*it is better to apply after a soil test
Maintaining soil moisture at the optimum level during flowering and fruiting stages will assure higher yield. Therefore, supplementary irrigation has to be provided if the rainfall is insufficient.
Keep the cultivation weed free to reduce pests, diseases and competition of plants and weeds for nutrient and space.
|Several insect pests can damage plants and pods during the growth period. Use seed treatments or spray application of recommended chemicals to control those pests.|
|Common name||Scientific name|
|Bean fly||Ophiomyia phaseoli|
|Pod borers||Maruka vitrata|
Four fungal diseases are the main problems in bean cultivation. These diseases are very serious during rainy season (Maha) and difficult to manage without fungicides. Use fungicides recommended by the Department of Agriculture to control these diseases.
|Disease||Causal agent||Affected part|
|Anthracnose||Coletotrichum lindemuthianum||Pods, leaves and stems|
|Rust||Uromyces appendiculatus||Leaves and pods|
|Angular leaf spot||Phaeoisariopsis griseola||Leaves and pods|
|Roots and stem base|
- Four virus diseases are common in bean cultivation.
- Infected leaves turn into mosaic or yellow/golden color.
- Remove and destroy infected plants as soon as possible to control the disease spread.
- Use recommended insecticides against the virus vectors
|Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV)||Aphids|
|Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV)||Aphids|
|Bean Golden Mosaic Virus (BGMV)||Whiteflies|
|Horsegram Yellow Mosaic Virus (HYMV)||Thrips|
- Pick pods before they reach to full maturity (tender pods)
- Vine types can be harvested from 60 days after planting
- Bush types can be harvested from 45 days after planting
- Gannoruwa BIL can be harvested in every 4 days and the rest of varieties in every 7 days
- Bush types – 5-10 t/ha
- Gannoruwa green – 18-20 t/ha
- Gannoruwa BIL – 20 t/ha
- Kekulu Bonchi – 25 t/ha
- Other vine types 12-16 t/ha
Keep harvested pods in a shade
Pack carefully in boxes or bags with adequate ventilation
Specific crop management practices
- Do staking for vine type varieties after 2-3 weeks of planting
- Use 6-7 ft high sticks for staking.
- Trellises can be used to get higher yield from variety Keppetipola Nil