HORDI Crop – Bean

HORDI - LOGO
<< Crop Page    

Bean

Phaseolus vulgaris L.

Bean belongs to the family Fabaceae and Genus Phaseolus.  It is widely cultivated in Badulla, Nuwara Eliya, Matale and Kandy Districts. Areas with high temperature (>32 ⁰C) and continuous high rainfall is unsuitable for bean cultivation. Temperature should be less than 30⁰C at the time of flowering because high temperature adversely effect on flowering and pod setting. Although bean is mainly cultivated in Up Country Intermediate Zone, it can also be cultivated in Up Country Wet Zone.

Bean varieties can be categorized into two types based on their growth habit as vine types or “pole bean” and bush types or “Bush bean”. Vine types are the most popular among farmers and consumers as well. Pole bean varieties grow continuously and need supports (stakes) to grow upright. Pods are bigger in size and light in color. Bush beans doesn’t produce much yield and pods are dark green. Its normally cultivate as an intermediate crop between two main cropping seasons

Released Varieties

Vine types (Pole Bean)
Bush types (Bush Bean)

Climate requirements/ Areas suitable for cultivation

Up Country Intermediate Zone and Up-Country Wet Zone (Badulla, Nuwara Eliya, Matale and Kandy Districts) are the most suitable areas for cultivation

Soil

Red Yellow Podzolic soil with good drainage and loam or sandy loam texture are ideal for cultivation. Soil with lots of clay tends to be poorly drained, which can cause root rot and blossom drop. Optimum l soil pH for better growth should be around 5.5-6.5.  

Seed requirement

Vine type – 50kg/ha

Bush type- 75kg/ha

Nursery management/time of planting

No nursery needed, direct seeding is the commonly practiced.

Badulla District –

  • Maha season – November and December
  • Yala Season – March and April

Land preparation

Plough soils to make fine tilth and prepare beds which can accommodate three rows. Mark planting holes in recommended spacing.

Planting

Soak seeds for about 24 hrs. before planting. Plant about 3-4 seeds per planting hole fairly away from each other. Keep beds well-watered. Two weeks after germination, keep two healthy seeding per planting hole and remove the other seedlings.

Spacing

Vine types – 50 cm between rows and 40 cm between plants

Bush types – 50 cm between rows and 15 cm between plants

Fertilizer

Add 10 t of well decomposed organic manure five or six days before seeding and recommended quantity of synthetic fertilizers (basal dressing) one to two days before seeding. 

Pole bean

Time of application

Urea (kg/Ha)

Triple supper phosphate (kg/Ha)

Muriate of potash (kg/Ha)

Basal dressing

110

270*

75*

Top dressing (three weeks after planting)

110

75

Bush bean

Basal dressing

85

165*

65*

Top dressing (three weeks after planting)

85

65

*it is better to apply after a soil test

Water supply

Maintaining soil moisture at the optimum level during flowering and fruiting stages will assure higher yield. Therefore, supplementary irrigation has to be provided if the rainfall is insufficient.

Weed Control

Keep the cultivation weed free to reduce pests, diseases and competition of plants and weeds for nutrient and space.

Pest Management

Several insect pests can damage plants and pods during the growth period. Use seed treatments or spray application of recommended chemicals to control those pests.
Common nameScientific name
Bean flyOphiomyia phaseoli
MitesTetranychus urticae
ThripsThrips spp
WhitefliesBemisia tabaci
AphidsAphis spp
Pod borersMaruka vitrata

Disease Management

Four fungal diseases are the main problems in bean cultivation. These diseases are very serious during rainy season (Maha) and difficult to manage without fungicides. Use fungicides recommended by the Department of Agriculture to control these diseases.

DiseaseCausal agentAffected part
AnthracnoseColetotrichum lindemuthianumPods, leaves and stems
RustUromyces appendiculatusLeaves and pods
Angular leaf spotPhaeoisariopsis griseolaLeaves and pods
Root rot

Fusarium oxysporum

Fusarium solani

Roots and stem base
  • Four virus diseases are common in bean cultivation.
  • Infected leaves turn into mosaic or yellow/golden color.
  • Remove and destroy infected plants as soon as possible to control the disease spread.
  • Use recommended insecticides against the virus vectors
Common nameVector
Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV)Aphids
Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV)Aphids
Bean Golden Mosaic Virus (BGMV)Whiteflies
Horsegram Yellow Mosaic Virus (HYMV)Thrips

Harvesting

  • Pick pods before they reach to full maturity (tender pods)
  • Vine types can be harvested from 60 days after planting
  • Bush types can be harvested from 45 days after planting
  • Gannoruwa BIL can be harvested in every 4 days and the rest of varieties in every 7 days

Yield

  • Bush types – 5-10 t/ha
  • Gannoruwa green – 18-20 t/ha
  • Gannoruwa BIL – 20 t/ha
  • Kekulu Bonchi – 25 t/ha
  • Other vine types 12-16 t/ha

Post-harvest handling

Keep harvested pods in a shade

Pack carefully in boxes or bags with adequate ventilation

Specific crop management practices

  • Do staking for vine type varieties after 2-3 weeks of planting
  • Use 6-7 ft high sticks for staking.
  • Trellises can be used to get higher yield from variety Keppetipola Nil