HORDI Crop – Tomato

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Tomato

Solanum lycopersicon

Popular vegetable  crop belonging  to Solanaceae. Can be grown in almost all agroclimatic zones in Sri Lanka except up country wet zone. It is an important cash crop and also has a good potential for export. Tomato fruit rich in vitamin A, C and minerals.  

Released Varieties

Climate requirements/ Areas suitable for cultivation

Optimum climatic conditions are

  • 21oC-24oC temperature.
  • PH should be in between 5.5-7.5
  • Elevation 1000-2000 m

Soil

Tomato is moderately tolerant to a wide range of pH, but grows well in soils with a pH of 5.5-7.5 addition of organic matter is in general favorable for good growth.

Seed requirement

200-250 g/ha

Nursery Management

Suitable period is mid of March or end of August. 1 m x 3 m size raised bed (about 15-20 cm raised) is recommended. Remove clods of earth and stubble. Mix well decomposed farmyard manure and top soil 1:1 ratio and lay on the bed to 5cm thickness . Apply fungicide (Thiram or captan) put paddy husk and straw layers on the Surface of the bed and fire from the opposite of the wind direction and burn the seed bed. Apply  2g of a fungicide ( Captan or thiram) to 125g of seeds as a seed treatment before place in the nursery .  Draw lines 12-15cm apart over the length of the seed bed. Sow the seed thinly spaced on the lines and press gently. covering the seeds with fine sand.Water the bed daily and mulch it  using clean paddy straws.

Land preparation

Harrow the soil and break soil finely. Mark pits according to given spacing fill the pits with decomposed manure or organic matter( 6-12 mt/ha). Make several drains to avoid water retention. Apply basal fertilizer  2-3 days before  transplanting

Planting

Transplant the seedling to the field 14-18 days  after sowing. A week before transplanting seedlings should be hardened by reducing the application of water but 12-14 hours before they are taken out of the seedbed they should be thoroughly watered again to avoid excessive damage to the roots. Seedlings of 15-25 cm tall with 3-5 true leaves are most suitable for transplanting. Transplanting should be done in the afternoon or on a cloudy day to reduce the transplanting shock. If the transplanting is done in shiny day the transplanted plants should be covered with twigs of plants like Glyrisidea. 

Spacing

08 cm x 50 cm

Fertilizer

Mix 10 t/ha of well decomposed organic matter. Additionally apply chemical fertilizers as recommended. Apply basal fertilizers 2-3 days before planting

Chemical fertilizer recommendation for all district except Badulla District.

Times for apply

Urea  kg/ha

TSP kg/ha

MOP kg/ha

Basal fertilizer – 1-2 days before planting

65

325

65

Top dressing (03 weeks after planting)

65

Top dressing ( 06 weeks after planting)

65

65

Apply the above recommended triple super phosphate per hectare for Badulla District at the rate of 215 kg / ha.

Water supply

Don’t apply excess water specially in dry season. It cause fruit crack.

Weed Control

When plants are young specially 3-6 weeks after transplant, remove weeds by hand around the plants. And also weeding should be done  before apply fertilizers Always keep the cultivation free of weeds. It will reduce the risk of pests and diseases.

Pest Management

Disease Management

  • Fungal diseases
Causal Pathogens: Phythium spp.,Phytophthora spp.,Fusarium spp.,Rhizoctonia spp.,Sclerotium spp., Colletotrichum spp Symptoms: Seedling death due to root infection
Disease Management:
  • Virgin lands for nursery beds preparation
  • Heat sterilization
  • Seed Treatments – Thiram 80wp 5g/1Kg or Homai 4g/1kg
  • Soil treatments – Thiram 80wp  7g/5 l/m-2 or Homai   5g/5 l/m-2
Causal Pathogen:  Alternaria solani Symptoms:  Dark Patches with concentric rings on leaves, fruits and stems
Management:
  • Use recommended fungicides at initial stage of disease development (Refer: Pesticide recommendation DOA, 2019)
Mancozeb 80% WP – 20g/10l Metelaxyl 8%+ Mancozeb 64% WP -12.5g/10l Metiram 55% + Pyraclostrobin 5% WG – 8ml/10l
Causal PathogenPhytophthora infestans Symptoms:
  • First appear on the lower, older leaves as water-soaked grey-green spots.
  • Later spots darken and a white fungal growth forms on underside
Management:
  • Use recommended fungicides at initial stage of disease development (Refer: Pesticide recommendation DOA, 2019)
Mancozeb 80% WP – 20g/10l Metelaxyl 8%+ Mancozeb 64% WP -12.5g/10l Metiram 55% + Pyraclostrobin 5% WG – 8ml/10l
Causal PathogenCorynespora cassiicola  Symptoms
  • Circular, dark brown necrotic lesions in a concentric pattern on leaves and surrounded by a yellow halo and spread to all the leaflets
  • Leaves turn yellow and rapidly collapse and die
  • Spots also occur on the stem and fruits
Management: Suitable fungicides under testing
Causal organism: Oidium lycopersicum Symptoms:
  • Light green to bright yellow lesions on the upper surface of the leaf
  • Lower surface develop white powdery patches when the fungus sporulation
  • Severe infection result in leaf defoliation
Management:                                                     
  • Use recommended fungicides at initial stage of disease development (Refer: Pesticide recommendation DOA, 2019)
    • Apply sulfur 80% WG 50 g/10 l of water
    • Chlorothalonil 500g/l SC- 30 ml/10 l of water
    • Carbendazim 50% WP- 7 g/10 l of water
Causal organism: Colletotrichum coccodes Symptoms
  • Die-back from apical buds, Flower dropping
  • Black , sunken leaf, stem and fruit lesions
  • Fruit rot
Disease Managements:
  •  Seed treatment with recommended fungicides before seed sowing
  • Use recommended fungicides at initial stage of disease development (Refer: Pesticide recommendation DOA, 2019)

Causal organism: Septoria lycopersici

Symptoms: Water soaked areas on affected leaves become circular with brown to gray centers.

Control: Use recommended fungicide

                  Daconil        15- 30 ml/10L

                  Mancozeb     20 ml/10L

                  Topsin           6g/10L                                                 

                  Carbandazim 7g/10L

Causal organism: Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia spp., Sclerotium spp.

Disease symptoms:
The pathogen attacks the collar portion of plant, The infection leads to the drying of lower leaves and eventually the whole plant dries giving a typical symptom of wilting which ultimately leads to its death.

  • Bacterial diseases

Causal organism: Ralstonia solanacearum
Disease symptoms

  • Permanent wilting of the plant during optimum water level in the soil
  • Viscous ooze exude at the cut end when immersed in water

Management

  • Use wilt resistant varieties
  • Crop rotation with legumes, cereals etc.
  • Maintain Field sanitization

Causal organism: Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm)
Disease symptoms:

  • Tomato leaves edges turn brown, with a yellow border
  • Wilt on lower leaves, often on one side only.
  • Entire plant may collapse and die.
  • Brown streaks can be seen in the vascular system when the stem is cut open.
  • Stem splits forming long, brown cankers.
  • Internal discoloration of stem from bacterial canker
  • Small, creamy, white spots with tan or brown centers on fruit (bird eye spot).

Management

  • Use of healthy seeds
  • Crop rotation
  • Maintain sanitation in the field
  • Viral diseases

TYLCV transmitted by whiteflies.

Symptoms

  • Upward curling of leaves
  • Yellow (chlorotic) leaf margins
  • Smaller leaves than normal
  • Plant stunting and flower drop
  • If tomato plants are infected early in their growth, there may be no fruit formed
  • Infected plants may appear randomly throughout the Field

Prevention & Treatment:

  • Eliminating weeds
  • Remove the old crop debris

Virus disease Management

  • Use disease free seeds
  • Weed free field and field sanitation
  • Reduce vector population (By insecticides)

Transmitted by : Leaf hoppers

  • Inward rolling of leaflets along the midrib
  • Petiole and midrib frequently curve downwards, giving the leaf a drooping but not wilting appearance
  • Leaves are thick, crisp, brittle and dull green in color with purple veins

Prevention & Treatment:

  • Eliminating weeds
  • Remove the old crop debris

Virus disease Management

  • Use disease free seeds
  • Weed free field and field sanitation
  • Reduce vector population (By insecticides)

TSWV is spread by a tiny insect called thrips

Symptoms

  • Plants show bronzing, curling, necrotic streaks and spots on the leaves
  • Dark-brown streaks also appear on leaf petioles, stems and growing tips
  • Plants are small and stunted
  • The ripe fruit shows paler red or yellow areas on the skin
  • Plants are killed by severe necrosis

Prevention & Treatment:

  • Eliminating weeds
  • Remove the old crop debris

Virus disease management

  • Use disease free seeds
  • Weed free field and field sanitation
  • Reduce vector population (By insecticides

CMV transmit by aphids
Symptoms:

  • Early stages are yellow, bushy and considerably stunted. Later, filiformity or shoestring-like leaf blades
  • Shoestring like leaf blades
  • Leaf mottling

Virus disease management

  • Use disease free seeds
  • Weed free field and field sanitation
  • Reduce vector population (By insecticides)

Harvesting

Harvesting is done when the fruits reach green yellow and can be harvest 10-12 picks. The fruits should be soted according to the size and quality and should be stored at well aerated place. 

Yield

Varies with season, variety and climate. Normally yields about 20-30 ton per hectare.