HORDI Crop – Snake Gourd

HORDI - LOGO
<< Crop Page    

Snake Gourd

Trichosanthes cucumerina L

Originated in tropical Asian countries . Found in  South and Southeast Asia, including India , Bangladesh , Nepal , Pakistan , Sri Lanka , Indonesia , Malaysia , Burma and southern china.

 In dry zone crop is cultivated in yala season. In wet zone crop is cultivated throughout the year. This crop has some medicinal values especially in ayurwedic medicine.

Released Varieties

Climate requirements/ Areas suitable for cultivation

High temperature is preferred. cultivated up to 500m elevation . successfully cultivated in Mathale, kandy, Hambanthota, Kurunegala, Rathnapura

Soil

Soil with high organic matters and good drainage is need. pH should be 5.5 -7.5

Seed requirement

4kg/ha

Nursery Management

Direct planting of seeds in the field

Land preparation

Plough the land 20-30 cm depth. 30 x 30 x 30 cm holes are prepared with recommended spacing

Planting

Add organic matters and fill the holes. Plant 2 seeds in one hole, with 2-3 cm depth seed germinate starts within 5 – 8 days

Spacing

1.5 m x 1.5 m

Fertilizer

Add 10 t/ha of organic matters. Add basal , 2-3 days  before planting and add top dressing 4 and 8 weeks after emergence of seedlings

Fertilizer recommendation for 1ha

Time of Application

Urea kg/ha

TSP kg/ha

MOP kg/ha

Basal

75

200

60

Top Dressing One (4weeks after planting)

75

60

Top Dressing Two (8 weeks after planting)

75

60

Water supply

Daily irrigate the crop until seed germinate

Weed Control

Control weeds at the early stages of the crop

Harvesting

Harvest the crop 60-75 days after planting with 4 days interval

Yield

20,000 kg/ha

Training

Train the vine 2m heights trellis. Remove side branches.

Pest Management

Disease Management

  • Fungal diseases
Causal organism: Podosphaera xanthii Symptoms:
  • First appears as pale yellow spots on older leaves
  • These spots enlarge as the white, fluffy mycelium grows over leaves surfaces
  • Severely attacked leaves become brown and shrivelled and defoliation may occur
Management:
  • Use recommended fungicides at initial stage of disease development (Refer: Pesticide recommendation DOA, 2019)
  • Distraction of infected plant debris after harvest

 Causal organism: Pseudoperonospora cubensis 

Symptoms:

  • Angular yellow spots that are limited by the leaf veins on the upper surface of the leaves.
  • Leaves become chlorotic and finally necrotic and host plant cells die

Management:

  • Use recommended fungicides at initial stage of disease development (Refer: Pesticide recommendation DOA, 2019)
  • Distraction of infected plant debris after harvest

Causal organisms:  Sclerotium spp., Fusarium spp.

Symptoms:

  • Initially the plants show temporary wilting symptoms
  • The leaves yellowing, loose turgidity and show drooping
  • Eventually, the plant dies.
  • Vascular bundles in the collar region become yellow or brown.

Management:

  • Destroy infected plants with soil
  • Improved drainage
  • Use recommended fungicides at initial stage of disease development (Refer: Pesticide recommendation DOA, 2019)

Causal organisms: Didymella bryoniae

Symptoms:

  • Lesions on leaves and fruit usually begin as spreading water-soaked areas
  • The former these may have a chlorotic halo, become light brown and irregular in outline
  • Dark cracked sunken lesions on fruit
  • Plant collapse where sunken, girdling cankers
  • Spots on stems often elongate into streaks and gummy exudates may occur from cracks
  • Dark brown to black fruiting bodies (pycnidia) can be seen on fruit, stem, or leaf

Management:

  • Crop debris should be ploughed deeply immediately after harvest to reduce fungus survival
  • Use recommended fungicides at initial stage of disease development (Refer: Pesticide recommendation DOA, 2019)
  • Bacterial diseases
Causal organism: Ralstonia solanacearum Symptoms:
  • Sudden drooping of leaves
  • Whole plant finally wilts
  • Leaves become brown, dry
  • Vascular discoloration (Brown)
  • Permanent wilting
Spreading of pathogen by;
  • Infected soil,  water, plant debris, Nematodes and insects ,pruning, Weeds as host plants
Disease Diagnosis: slimy viscous Bacterial ooze comes out from cut end of affected parts when immersing in clear water. Management:
  • Destroy infected plants with soil
  • Crop rotation with non- susceptible crops (okra , maize)
  • Mixed cropping with cruciferae crops
  • Avoid movement of equipment from infected fields to non- infected fields
  • Viral diseases
Transmitted by white fly (Bemicia tabaci) Symptoms:
  • upward curling, shortening, and distortion of leaves
  • Plant stunted and fruits deformed.
Transmitted by aphids Symptoms:
  • Mosaic and mottling of leaves
  • leaf distortion
  • Malformation of fruits and reduction in fruit size
  • In severe infections, oily patches on the fruit surface

Transmission: Seed borne, through sap

Symptoms:

  • Green mottle, leaf deformation
  • Green spot on fruits, turn bright yellow and decaying fruit
  • fruit malformation.

Symptoms:

  • Stunting, yellowing, necrosis (occasionally), mosaic, leaf deformations (blisters, shoe stringing)
  • Fruit discolorations and deformations
  • Pytoplasma Disease
Disease symptoms Smaller, thickened and yellowish green leaves Shortened internodes and stunting of  plants Witch’s broom symptom Greening of flowers Disease Transmission Through leaf hoppers Through infected seeds Disease control Remove infected plants Control vectors (leaf hoppers) using a recommended insecticide