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RICE-the staple food - Weed management

Echinochloa colona

Family – Poaceae 

Scientific name – Echinochloa colona (L.) Link

Common name – S- Gira-thana; T- Adipul

Synonyms – 

  • Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link, E. crus-galli subsp. colona (L.) Honda, Panicum colonum L. (basionym), P. cumingianum Steud., P. zonale Guss., Milium colonum (L.) Moench, Oplismenus colonus (L.) Kunth 

Lifespan – Annual


  • Plant – up to 60 cm tall.
  • Stem – reddish or green, ascending to erect, No epidermal hairs present.
  • Leaf: linear, about 10−15 cm long, basal part is often red; No ligules present.
  • Inflorescence: simple racemes, colur could be green to purple, spikelets are subpedicellate.

Biology and ecology

  • Flowers throughout the year
  • Propagated by seeds (after a short dormancy period).
  • There could be a large number of plants in a population
  • E. colona is well response to nutrients
  • This plants prefer moist soil but not flourish in flooded conditions
  • A problem mainly in upland and rainfed lowland rice fields rather than in flooded fields

Agricultural importance

  • The species mimic rice during vegetative growth stage and is a serious competitor of rice
  • A host plant for tungro and rice yellow dwarf disease etc.
  • This plant is also a palatable fodder for cattle and water buffalo.


Cultural control: flooding; hand weeding or use of a hoe during early growth stages.

Chemical control: application of recommended weedicides

Photo credits –

  1. http://www.fresnostate.edu
  2. http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org
  3. https://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu