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Rice-the staple food-Crop Establishment

Different Methods for Direct Sowing (Seed Broadcasting)

Wet Seeding

How do we perform wet seeding?

  • Pre-germinated seeds are used as the planting material.
  • Seeds are broadcasted in to the field.
    • Randomly OR
    • In rows (manually or using mechanical seeders).
  • Seed rate – ~400 seeds/sq m.
  • After sowing, field is intermittently wetted to avoid seed desiccation.
  • After 01 week (5 cm tall seedlings), water is impounded to the field (about 2cm height) .

Important factors to be considered?

  • Stand establishment may be affected by various factors and result variable seedling densities in the field, such as,
    • quality and vigor of seeds
    • quality of land preparation
    • weed competition
    • water management
    • environmental conditions (e.g. rainfall during the initial period after sowing)
    • physical damages
  • Use of seed paddy with a good seed vigor may help overcoming these issues.
  • Row seeding will assit
  • However, row seeding is practiced in limited scale because of the cost and the difficulty in obtaining implements.

Dry Seding

How do we perform dry seeding?

  • Non-germinated (dry) seeds are used as planting material.
  • Field is usually at a state of “no-water”.
  • Seeds are sawn on to dry soil (Also known as “Kekulan” or “Manawari” method).
  • Sowing is done either in rows or in a random manner.
  • Required seed rates vary with
    • severity of the environmental conditions.
    • potential physical damages to the seeds.
  • Seed rates could also be adjusted to control weed infestation levels (from 150 kg/ha to 300 kg/ha).

Water Seeding

Water seeding is a novel, recently introduced method of establishment.

How do we perform water seeding?

  • Pre-germinated seeds are used as the planting material.
    • soaked for 48 hours and incubated for 24 hours.
  • Seeds are broadcasted to puddled soil with standing water unlike in wet seeding.
    • water may contain suspended clay particles.
    • seeds slowly get deposited with a thin layer of mud.


  • Protect the sown seeds from birds.
  • Minimize the growth of weeds including grasses and sedges.