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Rice-the staple food-Crop Establishment

Direct Sowing (Seed Broadcasting)

  • Comparatively economical than transplanting.
  • Most popular establishment method among rice farmers.
  • Three methods are in practice.
    • Wet seeding
    • Dry seeding
    • Water seeding
  • Seed rate is an important factor to consider in direct sowing.

Seed Rate

  • Potential yeild of a healthy crop is usually about 350-400 panicles/sq. m.
  • Seed rate should be adjusted accordingly.
    • medium grain size (23-25 g/1000 seeds) – about 100 kg/ha.
    • small grain size (“Samba”) – about 75-80 kg/ha.
  • In general, required seed rate decreases with increasing seed weight.

Varieties available for planting – READ MORE>>

  • Seed rate will also be a critical factor when dry seeding is practiced, as seeds may get damaged due to various reasons.

Imperferct Seed Rates and Density


  • Will have a negative impact on crop.
  • Within the same seed size class
    • decreasing seed rates would increase unproductive tillering.
    • increasing seed rates would reduce yeild due to
      • increase in plant density.
      • lead to unhealthy seedlings with small panicles.
      • increase in susceptibility to pest and diseases
  • A uniform plant density can be maintained by
    • uprooting seedlings from high plant density areas (thinning out).
    • transplanting  seedlings in places having low plant density.