Tamil: HORDI Crop – Capsicum

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Capsicum

capsicum annuum

This is a popular vegetable in Sri Lanka. It is grow mostly in dry and intermediate zones. About 4000ha is cultivated annually and supply about 36000 mt. the per capita consumption is about 890g. the local need is satisfied with the local production. This crop is cultivated in all the districts during both yala and maha seasons. This is cultivated in all months of the year in different parts of the country. NuwaraEliya, Badulla, Kurunegala, Puttalam and Anuradhapura are major cultivated districts.

Released Varieties

Climate requirements/ Areas suitable for cultivation

It can be cultivated mostly in all agro-ecological zones of the country throughout the year can be successfully grown up to 1500m above msl. Supplementary irrigation required during dry periods.

Soil

Grows well in well drained, deep and fertile loam soils. Sandy soils also good when required amount of organic matter added. pH value between 5.5 -6.8 is preferred

Seed requirement

CA 8 – 1 kg/ha

HYW and LYW- 1.75 kg/ha

Nursery Management

3m x 90 cm and 15 cm height beds are prepared. Apply compost or cow dung 3-4 kg per square meter. Use burning, solar sterilization or agro chemicals to sterilize soils. Put seeds in rows 10-15 cm apart and less than to 1 cm depth. Apply a suitable mulch and provide irrigation. Seed germinate in 8-10 days. Seedlings are ready to plant in 21 days.

Land preparation

Plough the field up to 15-20 cm depth and two harrowings Raised beds have to be prepared for better drainage

Planting

Yala season – April and May

Maha season – November and December

It can be cultivated throughout the year under supplementary irrigation and also under rain shelters or protected houses.

Spacing

HYW and LYW – 15 x 30 cm between plants and rows

CA-8 and Gannoruwa Prarthana – 40 x 40 cm between plants and rows

Fertilizer

recommendation (kg/ha)

 

Urea

Kg/ha

TSP

Kg/ha

MOP

Kg/ha

Basal Application

100

215

65

1 month after planting

100

65

2 month after planting

100

65

Water supply

Irrigation to be practiced in 4-5 day intervals at early stages and 1 week interval at latter stages of the crop. This depends on the rainfall. Irrigation required at before and after fertilizer application, and during flowering and fruit development stages.

Weed Control

Weeding is required at 2,4 and 8 weeks after planting fertilizer can be applied after weeding. Soils can be added to the plants after weeding and fertilizer application

Pest Management

Disease Management

Causal Agent: – Fusarium spp., Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia spp., and Sclerotium spp.

Disease symptoms: –

  1. Pre-emergence Damping- off
  • The seedling dies before emerging from the soil level.
  • Seeds and seedlings get rotten.
  1. Post-emergence Damping- off
  • The seedling dies after emerging from the soil level.
  • Infection appears first at the plant’s base or root.
  • Moisture and soft rot are visible in tissues from infected areas.
  • The infected area shrinks and the plant collapses when the damage is severe.
  • Before the plant dies, the leaves become withered.
  • Plants have also been found dead in scatted places.

Disease control: –

  • Nurseries should be established in well-drained areas and areas where Solanaceae crops such as tomatoes, brinjals, and chillies are not grown in previous seasons.
  • Crop rotation needed with non-host crops.
  • Sterilization of nursery beds (e.g., Burning, solarization).
  • Avoid sowing too many seeds in the nursery (3m*1m size bed-40g seeds are recommended).
  • The diseased plants should be removed along with soil and destroyed

Causal Agent: – Colletotrichum spp

Disease symptoms: –

  • Symptoms can appear in plant leaves, stem and pods.
  • Discoloration of flower stalk, flower buds and shoots.
  • Flowers will fall.
  • Young pods will fall due to occurring of large number of spots on the pods.
  • Small, round and sunken lesions appear on the pod’s surface and spread along its length.
  • On ripe pods, brown color, circular spots can be seen.
  • With time small, blackish color spores can be observed as a concentric ring on these lesions.
  • Then ripen pods get rotten.
  • When the disease is severe, die back begin at the tip and spread down wards (Die back during the vegetative growth phase).
  • When the disease is severe, the plants wither and die after spreading the disease across the entire plant.

Disease control: –

  • Cultivating resistant varieties.
  • Healthy seeds should be used for cultivation.
  • Field sanitation (destroy crop residues).
  • Disease infected plant parts should be removed from the field.
  • Crop rotation with non-host plants in every 2-3 years’ time.
  • Improve drainage in the field.
  • Maintain recommended spacing among plants.
  • Apply Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

Causal Agent: – Ralstonia solanacearum

Disease symptoms: –

  • Can be seen as a single or multiple withered plant in a zone.
  • Immature leaves wither during the hottest part of the day.
  • Then it exhibits an immediate permanent wilting.
  • Wilted plants become dead few days after shredding the leaves.
  • The disease is easily diagnosed by suspending a clean cut section of disease stem in clear water. Bacterial ooze can be seen coming out from the cut surface.

Disease control: –

  • Crop rotation should be done with non-host crop in the fields.
  • Use of wilt resistant varieties
  • All infected roots and host weeds should be removed and destroyed
  • Infected plants should be removed and destroyed along with the surrounding soil
  • Water should not be supplied from infected fields to healthy fields
  • Improve drainage.
  • Solanaceae crops are highly susceptible (Chili, Capsicum, Tomato, Brinjal, Potato).
  • Disease can be observed in all stages of the crop.

Vector: white fly                   

Disease symptoms: –

  • Yellowing of leaves and veins become clearly visible.
  • Dwarfing of plants due to shortening of internode length and formation of excessive number of shoots.
  • Upward curling of leaves due to reduced leaf size.
  • The pods of infected plants are small.

Disease control: –

  • Timely cultivation.
  • Established wind barriers (ex. Maize).
  • Destroy alternative host plants (ex. Weeds).

Causal agent: – Cercospora capsici.

Disease symptoms: –

  • During the initial stage of infection, brownish circular spots with light-gray centers and yellow color margins appear on leaves (‘Frog –eye’ appearance).
  • At latter stages of infection, leaves turn yellow and drop.
  • Infected leaves will fall after become wilted and rolled.
  • Heavy leaf shedding can occur under high Rh conditions.
  • Brown color lesions may appear on the leaf stalks, pods or branches on occasion.
  • The lower mature leaves are usually the first to become infected.
  • When the damage is severe, upper leaves are also become infected.
  • Favorable conditions for infection are infected crop residues, warm temperatures around 20oC-25oC, and higher relative humidity.

Disease control: –

  • Collect all the infected leaves and destroyed (Field sanitation)
  • To avoid high Rh, use recommended spacing and facilitate good drainage.
  • Apply recommended amount of organic fertilizers

Causal agent: –

Disease symptoms: –

  • The first sign is pale yellow leaf spots on upper leaf surface.
  • Then white powdery spots will form on lower leaf surfaces, and quickly expand into large blotches.
  • Gradually leaves become yellow and fall off.

Disease control: –

  • Field sanitation.
  • Use of resistant varieties
  • Provide good air movement around plants through proper spacing and weed control.
  • Apply Trichoderma spp.

Causal agent: – Choanephora spp

Disease symptoms: –

  • Plants from seedling to early flowering stage are susceptible.
  • Symptoms first appear on the flowers, buds, and apical parts of the plants.
  • Infected areas are brown or black in color. The fungus spreads quickly downwards, and the upper parts die.
  • They also show wet rot.
  • The spore- producing structures are visible to the naked eye.
  • As a result, the infected areas appear grayish silver.
  • Fruit infection is observed predominantly around calyx.
  • This infection can occur even without any insect or mechanical damages. But, causal agents can easily enter through these wounds and make the infection.

Disease control: –

  • The recommended spacing should be maintained.
  • Remove and destroy diseased shoots as soon as symptoms appear.

Harvesting

First harvesting can be done 75 days after nursery sowing and at 5-7 day intervals. Thereafter in 7-10 picks during the crop growth. Practice harvesting in dry weather conditions

Yield

10-15 t/ha – OP varities

20-25 t/ha – Hybrids

Higher yield can be obtained under better management practices

இப்பக்கம் வடிவமைப்பு செயற்பாட்டில் இருப்பதனால் அதுவரைக்கும் கீழேயுள்ள பக்கங்களை அணுகவும்.