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Rice-the staple food- Land Preparation

Primary Land Preparation

What is the purpose of primary tillage?

  • Increases the rhizosphere soil depth and make adequate space for the roots to grow.
  • Incorporates weed biomass and crop residues to soil, and improve organic matter content in the soil.

What is the perfect timing?

  • The moisture content of the soil determines the time of tillage.
  • Ideal when soil is adequately friable at the time of ploughing.
  • Primary tillage should be done at least 14 days before the secondary tillage (3-4 weeks before crop establishment).

What are the techniques to be used?

  • For deep ploughing – Moldboard ploughs fixed to 04- or 02-wheeled tractors are used.
  • For medium depth tillage – Disc plough  or conventional plough with animal /manual power are used.
  • Recommended depth of ploughing is about 20 cm. 
  • Water should be incoperated to cover the half of the soil clumps
  • The green manure should be incoperated to fhe field after plowing.
  • Bunds should be cleaned and the weeds should be also incoperated to the field

What are the important factors that need special attention?

  • Continuous cropping and use of improper ploughing equipment could create a sandy shallow root zone.
  • If the time gap between tillage and crop establishment is extended, tillage steps should be repeated to prevent soil compaction.
  • Deep ploughing is important to control perennial weeds like “Atawara“ (Panicum repens Linn.) and “Kaladuru” (Cyprus rotundus L.).