Fruit Crops – Mango – E

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Mango

Family -Anacardiaceae

Botanical Name – MangiferaIndica

 

The Mango varieties were introduced by the DOA according to the adaptability of different agro ecological regions. The selection criteria’s of varieties were high yield, unique taste and long shelf life. It is high recommended that planting of Mango varieties recommended for the region.

Horanahiru

  • This variety was selected and recommended for the low county wet zone by Fruit Research & Development Institute, Horana.
  • HoranaHiru has fast vegetative growth and regular and prolific flowering habit.
  • Has its unique taste.
  • Moderately resistant to Anthracnose.
  • Long shelf life.
  • Pulp is golden yellow when ripe.
  • Bagging practice is essential to get yellow peel color & low pest incidents.

Karthacolomban

  • Recommended for dry and intermediate zones.
  • Long shape, short beak, and dark green and thick peel are external characters.
  • Soft, golden color and Juicy flesh.

Velleicolomban

  • Recommended for wet and intermediate zone.
  • Selection from local mango germplasm.
  • Show ploy embryonic.
  • Light green in color.
  • Low fiber content, golden yellow flesh andJuicy.

Villard

  • Recommended for dry zone.
  • Red peel color, round shape, and soft peel.
  • Low fiber content.
  • Has its unique taste and aroma.

 

TOM EJC

  • A large fruit, average fruit weigh is 400g.
  • Bagging practice is essential to have yellow color fruits.
  • Orange, less fiber flesh with good taste.
  • Recommended for commercial cultivation in dry zone of Sri Lanka.

Malwana

  • Medium size, light green color fruits.
  • Has good taste.
  • Recommended for dry and intermediate zones.

Dampara

  • Recommended for wet zone.
  • Round shape, average weight 100g per fruit , pale green color, Dark yellow flesh.

Giraamba

  • Recommended for wet zone.
  • Conspicuous beak.
  • Average weight 150g per fruit.
  • Dark orange flesh.
  • Has unique taste.

Climate requirement

Well grown in tropical & subtropical regions. Can be grown up to 1300 m. But commercial cultivation is successful from sea level to 600 m of height and optimum temperature is between 27 c0– 30 c0.

Annual rainfall should be average of 500-2500ml for better growth. In Sri Lanka flowering is highly affected by the rain fall pattern are finally results irritations of yield & quality of the crop affected.

Soil  

Mangoes can be grown in a wide range of soil types. Deep, rich, well drained soils provide the best production. Water logging soils are not suitable for mango production. The pH   range of soil should be 5.5 – 7.5.

Field Preparation

This is best done before the onset of the rainy season. Shrubs and trees should be cut down, preferable up rooted and the debris removed from the site.In flat and gently sloping lands, although hilly lands can also be planted. In hilly areas, before planting proper soil conservation methods should be applied.

Planting Materials

Budded or grafted plants are recommended. The plant should reflect the characters of its variety and label, which certified by the DOA.

Spacing   

                                                      Within row                                           between row

Willard                                            7m                                                       10m

Other verities                                   10m                                                     10m

 

Spacing for TOM EJC 

High density planting is practiced for commercial cultivation of TOM EJC in Sri Lanka. 5‹5m, 5‹6m, 5‹6m, 6‹6m spacings are practiced and 5‹5m is the most applicable spacing.

The size of the planting hole should be 60 cm‹60 cm‹ 60 cm. If there is a very hard soil hole should be 90 cm‹90 cm ‹90 cm in size.

Then refill the planting hole with organic manure and top soil (20kg of organic manure) before the 2 weeks of planting.

Irrigation

Water the trees right after planting and during drought periods. If dry season comes just after planting, water the trees regularly at least of 3 days interval.

The watering of trees after 3 years of age should be managed in order to get higher yield. The watering should be stopped before 3-4 months of flowing initiation. If prolong adverse drought period exists watering should be done only for surviving the plants.

With the initiation of flowering watering should be practiced regularly up to fruit maturing stage.

Pruning

Better canopy management is essential to have good productivity of any mango variety. In mango, increase in production with enhanced fruit quality is achieved by managing canopies.

 

The pruning should aim for,

  1. Maximum utilization of light.
  2. Avoidance of built- up microclimate spots for diseases & post late infestation.
  3. Convenience in carrying out the cultural practices.
  4. Maximizing the productivity with quality fruit production.

Training of a Mango tree

  • Allow the trees to grow upright for some time.
  • When about 50 cm high, pinch the terminal bud to force lateral shoots to sprout.
  • Allow the shoots to mature and again pinch the terminal bud on each shoot.
  • Repeat this process until the end of the 3rd
  • Remove low hanging branches, twigs and disorderly branches inside the tree to open up the tree canopy and any diseased and dead branches.

 Flowing induction

  • Paclobutrazol is applied to induce flowing.

This should be applied at correct stage with correct concentration of chemical to get better results.

Harvesting and post-harvest indices of mango.

The quality and the postharvest standard of the mango fruit depends on the time and stage of maturity at harvest.

The number of days from flowering and fruit set to harvest is a good nondestructive maturity index for mangoes.  

 

Determination of harvesting period

Changes of external appearances of matured mango fruits vary from variety to variety.

Color change from dark green to light green, appearance of yellow color on either side of the green shoulder, conspicuous shoulders and oozing thick wax from petiole are the common indexes for mature mangoes. 

Harvesting

Harvesting should be done between 10.00 am to 3.00 pm, using a fruit picker. Fruits keep upside down position to remove wax and let latex flow away from the fruit.

Grading of fruits

Remove diseased, infested, deformed and very small fruits. The fruits are graded into 3 groups by its size.

Packaging & transportation

Proper packaging is essential in maintaining produce quality during transport. Wood or plastic crates are highly recommended for fresh mangoes.

Hot water treatment (HWT)

HWT is the most effective post-harvest treatment against the main post harvest diseases of mango. During HWT, mature fruits are dipped for 5 to10 minutes in water heated to 52 co-55co. At this temperature range, the disease- causing organisms are killed without injuring the fruit.

Fruit ripening

Fruits can be ripened by exposing them to ethral, which initiate the early and uniform ripening process.

Now a day mango traders use calcium carbide for ripening. Calcium carbide contains impurities of arsenic and phosphorus hydrides which are toxic to human health.

But ethylene is a natural hormone does not pose any health hazard for consumers of the fruits.

Using Ethrel for fruit ripening method

Sealed container.

A solution which dissolved 1 ml ethrel in 1l of water.

A solution much dissolved in 10g of  NaOH in 1 l of water.

Place the fruits inside the ripening chamber with facilitate air circulation inside the chamber and then room should be sealed. Leave 1/5 of the chamber free from mangoes.

Use 110-150 ml of ethrel for 1m3 of volume. Keep the ethrel container inside the chamber and pour NaOH solution into it. The volume of NaOH  is 185 ml of NaOH for 1m3 of volume of the chamber. close the container tightly just after putting NaOH.

After 24 hours open the chamber and facilitate aeration.

Ethrel can be stored in a amber color bottle for few months.

Diseases of Mango

  1. Anthracnose

Causal agent is. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.Spread all the cultivated regions of Sri Lanka. Can be infected to flowers, immature leaves, mature leaves, stems and fruits.

Symptoms

Infected plants develop dark, water soaked lesions on stems, leaves and fruits. Immature leaves and flowers are highly susceptible.

Control

  • Spray of fungicides to control Anthracnose may reduce the incidence of stem and rot.

Facilitate aeration & sunlight in to the canopy.

Spray Mancozeb 80% wp (20g for 10l of water) during flowering.

Wash fruits just after harvesting with 52co -55co water for 5 minutes.

  1. Stem and rot

A dark rot develops from the stem end as fruit ripen after harvest.

A dark brown to black rot begins at the stem end as a dark brown ring and the rot proceeds towards the other end.

Control

  • Spraying of fungicides to control anthracnose may reduce the incidence of stem end rot.
  • Remove dead branches from the trees.
  • Prune trees to facilitate aeration & sunlight.

Leaf spot diseases of mango

Fungal leaf spot

Irregular, ash color spots on leaves.

Bacterial leaf spot

Water soaked blackish triangular lesions margined by veins on leaves.

leaf spots caused by Algae.

Whitish grey spots on leaves.

Control

Apply mancozeb

Facilitate aereation & sunlight into the canopy by pruning.

  1. Mango scab

Brown color rough lesions on fruits. When severe, show cracked brown color patches on fruits.

Apply Cu based fungicides.

Pests of mango

  1. Mango fruit fly

The female damages outer peel of mature fruits and insert eggs in small clusters inside mesocarp of mature fruits. Maggots can be seen on fruit pulp and the infested fruits start rotting.

control

Bagging of fruits at correct stage of fruit.

Using male traps methyl euginol trap

By spraying a protein as a bait ( protein bait).

2.Mango hopper

Adults lay eggs singly  floral shoots, buds and tender leaves.

After hatching, large number of nymphs and adult puncture and suck the sap of tender parts such as panicles, inflorescence, leaves and fruits, thereby reducing the vigor of the plants and causing fruit drop. They also damage the crop by excreting a sweet sticky substance which facilitates the development of sooty mold, a fungal, which affects photosynthesis.

Control

In order to control ,spray imidacloprid 10ml in 10 L water or Actara 5g in 10L water.

Regular weeding & pruning of overcrowded & overlapping branches.

3.Mango seed Weevil

This is one of the most important mango pest and is wide spread in most mango growing regions. It is also called Mango nut weevil or Mango stone weevil. Eggs are laid singly in small cavities made by the female in the skin of young fruits. The larva burrows through the flesh of the fruit in to the seed where they feed until pupation.

Damage

Attack when the early fruit development stages, leads to premature fruit fall. Infested fruits present internal rot on the outer surface of the stone. The stones develop holes and the cotyledons turn black and become a rotten mass.

As the adult emerges, it tunnels through the flesh into the open, leaving a hole in the fruit skin.

Control

  • Maintenance of good orchard sanitation and weed control.
  • Planting resistant varieties.
  • Sticky bands- these are applied at the upper end of tree trunks when the trees start flowering to help in reducing migration of weevils to branches for egg laying.

4.Leaf cutting Weevil

The female laid between 1 to 21 eggs on the leaf, usually on the dorsal side of the midrib. Larvae developed on fallen cut leaves by passing through three larval clusters.

Damage

The insect cuts the leaf contains eggs near the petiole and the leaf drops on the ground. The plant loses a lot of young leaves.

Control

  • Collection & destruction of affected leaves from the ground.
  • Spray recommended insecticide at immature leaf stages.

 

  1. Mango steam borer

Adults are large, grayish with two pink spots and lateral spines on thorax.

Damage

Grubs feed by tunneling through the bark of stem.

Make irregular galleries in the stem.

Chewed material and excrete will be thrown out of the branches.

 

Symptoms

  • Wilting of branches and main stem.
  • Oozing of dark liquid from entry hole and accumulation of frass on the ground.

Control

  • Spray recommended insecticide just after observing the damage.
  • Remove and destroy infected stem parts.

Mealy bug

They are sucking insects, soft bodied, oval shape and cottony in appearance.

Damage

They suck a large amount of sap from all parts of the tree and act as a vector for several diseases.

They help in development of black sooty mold which inhibits the plants ability to manufacture food. Can cause withering and yellowing of the leaves. Fruits may drop prematurely and crop may be destroyed completely.

Trips

The nymphs and adults suck the sap of tender leaves resulting into development of brownish patches on the leaf surface resulting in leaf tall in severe stage.

 Control

Spray imidocloprid 10 ml in to 10 L.

Termites

Termites start attacking in an area of dead wood created by pruning or other damage.

Control

Do not injure the trunk of the plant.

Use imidocloprid 10 ml in to 10 L.

 

 

 

 

Mites

Attacks shoot apexes and retard growth of the auxiliary buds. Infected fruits show brown color patches on peel and retard the growth rate of the fruit and finally results small fruits.

Control

Spray sulfur of miticide at earlier stages of infestation 

 

Scales

Retard the growth of the tree.

Flowering is affected and results poor flowering.

Develop black mold when severe on leaves.

 

Control

By using natural enemies.

Useful Links

Ministry of Agriculture  

Sri Lanka Council for Agricultural Research Policy(CARP)

Government Information Centre                       More Links…

Ministry of Agriculture  

Sri Lanka Council for Agricultural Research Policy(CARP)

Government Information Centre                       More Links…

 

Address :  Fruit Research and Development Institute, Kananwila ,Horana, Sri Lanka.

Email : doadfrd@gmail.com

Telephone : (+94) 0342261323

Fax : (+94) 0342261323

Open : Mon to Fri – 8.30am to 4.30pm (Saturday & Sunday Closed)