Tomato : Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

Introduction

Tomato is one of the most widely cultivated vegetable crop in the world. It is an important Source of vitamin. An important cash crop for medium scale commercial farmers. Its Origin is the South American Andes.

Tomato Contribute to a healthy well balanced diet. They are rich in minerals vitamins amino acid, Sugars and dietary fibers. Tomato contains much Vitamin B and C, iron and phosphorus although a ripe tomato contains as much as 93 to 94 percent water.


Nutritive value of tomato per 100 gm of edible portion

Nutrient

Amount

Water

94.1 gm

Protein

1.0 gm

Fat 

0.3 gm

Carbohydrates 

4.0 gm

Fibre

0.6 gm

Vitamin A 

1100 IU

Vitamin B

0.2 gm

Vitamin C 

23 gm

Nicotinic acid 

0.6 gm

Pantothenic acid

0.31 gm

Vitamin E 

0.27 gm

Biotin

0.004 gm

Malic acid

150.0 gm

Citric acid

390.0 gm

Oxalic acid 

7.5 gm

Sodium (Na)

3.0 gm

Potassium (K)

268.0 gm

Calcium (Ca) 

11.0 gm

Magnesium (Mg)

11.0 gm

Iron (Fe)

0.6 gm

Copper (Cu) 

0.1 gm

Manganese (Mn)

0.19 gm

Phosphorus (P)

27.0 gm

Sulphur (S)

11.0 gm

Chlorine (Cl)

51.0 gm


Recommended Varieties

KWR

  • Determinate type (Bush Type)
  • Recommended areas are Low, Mid and Up Country
  • Resistant to Bacterial wilt
  • Wilt resistant
  • Fruits are

- Orange red in Colour
- Bearing period 2-3.5 months
- Small to medium size
- Acidic
- Average weight 50 g

 

T 146

  • Determinate type
  • Recommended Mid, Dry and Up Country intermediate zone
  • Moderately resistant to? Bacterial wilt
  • Fruits are

- Orange red in Colour with green 
shoulder
- Bearing period 2.5-3.5 months
- Medium size
- Average weight 90 g

 

T 245

  • Determinate type
  • Recommended Up Country intermediated zone
  • Fruits are

- Orange red in Colour
- Round shaped
- Bearing period 2.5-3.5 months
- Medium size
- Average weight 100 g
- Thick pericarp

 

Thilina

  • Semi determinate type
  • Fruits are

- Orange red in Colour
- First harvest about 2.5 months  
after trans planting
- Medium size
- Thick pericarp
- Hard Fruits
- Average weight 85-95 g

 

Ravi

  • Determinate type
  • Fruits are

- Dark red in Colour
- Susceptible wilt
- Medium size
- Weight 43 g

 

Tharindu

  • Determinate type
  • Fruits are

- Dark red in Colour
- Susceptible to wilt
- Medium size
- Weight 43 g

 

Rashmi

  • Determinate type
  • Moderately Susceptible to? Bacterial wilt
  • Fruits are

- Orange red in Colour
- Medium size
- Weight 185 g

 

Rajitha

  • Determinate type
  • Moderately Susceptible to? Bacterial wilt
  • Fruits are

- Orange red in Colour
- Medium size
- Weight 80 g

 

Lanka Sour (Goraka Takkali)

  • Selected Variety
  • Resistant to Bacterial wilt
  • Fruits are

- Orange red in Colour
- Average Weight 122 g

 

Mahesha

  • Hybrid Varity
  • Potential high yield
  • Resistant to Bacterial wilt
  • Fruits are

- Red Colour
- Average Weight 125 g

 

K.C. 01

  • Determinate type
  • Suitable for both yala and maha seasons in dry area
  • Heat tolerant
  • High yielding
  • Fruits are

- Medium to Large size
- Flattened Fruits

 

Roma

  • Determinate type
  • Recommended Low Country
  • Fruits are

- Orange red in Colour
- Bearing period 2-3 1/2 
months
- Medium size
- Oval shaped
- Average weight 60

 

Biyan

  • Semi determinate type
  • Recommended Up Country
  • Average weight 100 g
 

Bathiya

Nursery Management

  • Suitable period is mid of March or end of August
  • 1 m x 3 m size raised bed (about 18-20 cm raised) is recommended
  • Remove clods of earth and stubble
  • Add well decomposed farmyard manure and fine sand and prepare the bed
  • Apply fungicide (Thiram or captan) put paddy husk and straw layers on the Surface of the bed and fire from the opposite of the wind direction and burn the seed bed
  • Draw lines 12-15cm apart over the length of the seed bed. Sow the seed thinly spaced on the lines and press gently covering the seeds with fine sand.
  • Water the bed and mulch it by using paddy straw


Field Establishment
Climatic requirement
Optimum climatic conditions are

  • 21 0c - 27 0c temperature
  • PH should be in between 5.8-6.8
  • Elevation 1000-2000 m


Soil

Tomato grows well on most mineral soil that has proper water holding capacity and aeration and is free of soil. It prefers deep well drained sandy loam soils. The upper layer needs to be permeable. Soil depth of 15 to 20 cm is needed to grow a healthy crop.


Transplanting

Transplant the seedling to the field 3-4 weeks after sowing. A week before transplanting seedlings should be hardened by reducing the application of water but 12-14 hours before they are taken out of the seedbed they should be thoroughly watered again to avoid excessive damage to the roots. Seedlings of 15-25 cm tall with 3-5 true leaves are most suitable for transplanting. Transplanting should be done in the afternoon or on a cloudy day reduce the transplanting shock.

Tomato is moderately tolerant to a wide range of pH, but grows well in soils with a pH of 5.5-6.8 addition of organic matter is in general favorable for good growth.


Watering

Tomato is not resistant to drought. It is important to water the plant regularly especially during flowering and fruit formation the amount of water that is needed depend on the type of soil and on the weather.


Weed Control
Hand weed at 3 and 6 weeks after planting

Spacing -  80 cm x 50 cm
Seed rate - 300g-400g /Hac-1

Fertilizer Recommendation
All areas except Badulla district

Type

Time of Application

Source

Quantity

Liming *

2 WBP

Lime/Dolomite

1-2 t/ha

Organic manure

3 - 5 DBP

PM**, CM or Compost

10 t/ha

Chemical Fertilizer

 

Source and Qty kg/ha

Nutrient Qty kg/ha

   

Urea

TSP

MOP

N

P2O5

K2O

 

BP

65

325

65

30

150

40

 

3WAP

65

-

-

30

-

-

 

6 WAP

65

-

65

30

40

Total

 

195

325

130

90

150

80

*Apply only If pH <5
** If PM is applied, reduce TSP and MOP by 25%
BP=Before planting; DBP=Days before planting; WBP=Weeks before planting; WAP=Weeks after planting; PM=Poultry
manure; CM=Cattle manure

Badulla district

Type

Time of Application

Source

Quantity

Liming * 

2 WBP

Lime/Dolomite

1-2 t/ha

Organic manure

3 - 5 DBP

PM**, CM or Compost

10 t/ha

Chemical Fertilizer

 

Source and Qty kg/ha

Nutrient Qty kg/ha

   

Urea

TSP

MOP

N

P2O5  

K2O

 

BP

65

215

50

30

100

30

 

3WAP

65

-   

-

30

-

-

 

6 WAP

65

-

50

30

-

30

Total

 

195

215

100

90

100

60

*Apply only If pH <5
** If PM is applied, reduce TSP and MOP by 25%
BP=Before planting; DBP=Days before planting; WBP=Weeks before planting; WAP=Weeks after planting; PM=Poultry
manure; CM=Cattle manure

Pest control
Cut worm (Agrotis spp)
Damage Symptoms

  • The young plants are cut from the base.


Control methods
Non chemical Control

  • Ploughing the soil to expose to sunlight
  • Flood the land with water

Chemical control

  • Just after planting treat one of following insecticide around the base of the plants to saturate the soil. Mix them with 10 liter of water

- Trichlorofon   500g/l         37 mlo
- Profenophos  500g/l         23 ml

- Prothiofos 500g/l             30 ml

- Clorofluzuron 500g/l      10 ml


Tomato pod borer (Heliothis armigera)
Damage symptoms

  • Damaged leaves
  • Bores in fruits

Control

  • If the damage is not severe collect and destroy the Caterpillars
  • If the damage is severe apply insecticide
  • The first spraying may be done at the time of flowering and formation of fruits
  • Clorofluzuron 50g/l (Atabron)


Disease Control

  • Damping off
  • Causal Organism

- Pythium spp
Cause rot of soft tissue. Affected seedlings collapse at the base of   
stem and death of seedling. Poor germination may occur due to   
pre-emergence damping left
- Rhizoctonia solani
Cause brownish black discolouration at the base of the stem and death
at seedlings
- Fusarium Solani
Mainly causes root rot
- Macrophomina phaseolina
Causes blackening of the stem base and on root resulting in dry root  
and seedling welt
Control
1. Prepare nursery beds in well drained virgin soil or subsoil
2. Nursery sterilization

  • Apply 10cm leveled thickness at paddy husk and paddy straw on the nursery bed. Then burn it form opposite wind direction.
  • Covered the nursery beds with transparent polythene sheet for a minimum of seven continues sunny day
  • Treat seeds and drench soil with recommended fungicide like captan and thiram


Bacterial wilt
Symptoms

  • Sudden and permanent wilting similar to water stress
  • Discoloration of vascular tissue

Control

  • Crop rotation with non solanacea crops
  • Use wilt resistant verities
  • Soil sterilization with fungicides such as methyl bromide can be effective but is very costly


Blight
Symptoms

  • The disease affects foliage stems and fruits water soaked spots on leaves enlarge in to brownish or purplish lesions
  • Under moist conditions a white mildew develops spores on the underside of leaves

Control

  • Ensure field sanitation by eliminating diseased materials
  • Grow resistant verities
  • Use recommended fungicide like

Chlorothalonil (Dacornil) 30 ml/10 l-1
Propineb (Antrocol) 20 ml/10 l-1
Mancozeb 20 ml/10 l-1
Maneb 20 ml/10 l-1

Anthacnose
Symptoms

  • Sunken brown spots on fruits and leaves
  • Discolouration of buds and die-back of plants

Control

  • Remove and destroy infected plants
  • Use recommended fungicides like

Chlorothalonil (Dacornil) 20 g/10 l-1
Mancozeb      20 g/10 l-1
Maneb          20 g/10 l-1

Downy mildew
Symptoms

  • White patches on the lower surface of leaves while the upper surface of leaves become yellowish then brown and leaves die, seedling death may result.

Control

  • Use recommended fungicide like

Chlorothalonil (Dacornil)
Propineb (Antrocol)
Mancozeb
Maneb

Blossom end rot
Symptoms

  • Dark green water soaked spots appear at the blossom end of the fruit and enlarge until the fruits begin to ripen. Affected tissues are hard and leathery initially but due to secondary infection, fruit rot can develop

Control

  • Water regularly to avoid drought stress


Leaf curl virus
Symptoms

  • Leaves Curl upward
  • Reduction of fruit size

Control

  • Remove diseased plant
  • Spray with insecticides for vector control


Harvesting & Post-harvest Technology
When the colour changes from green to yellow should be harvested.

Post Harvest treatments

  • Collect Harvested fruits to a container
  • Do not drop on the soil
  • Do not expose to the sun
  • Do not held on the floor


Storage techniques

  • Cold storage conditions are 13-210c and 90.95% PH
  • Enclose in seated low density polyethylene bags before storing at low temperature


Packaging
Use rigid 30 cm ventilated plastic crates. It is better to use polyethylene liner to improve quality.

Transporting

  • If produce is packed in plastic crates stock them in lorries for transport
  • Use ventilated lorries
  • Do not open lorries
  • Protect from sun light and rain careful loading and unloading


Economics & Marketing
Tomato - Target Production as in the District-level Extension Plan (mt)

Province

Districts

2000

2001

2002

Western

Colombo

24

25

26

 

Gampaha

-

-

-

 

Kalutara

84

120

144

Southern

Galle

4

30

30

 

Matara  

174

264

288

 

Hambantota

1150

1165

1190

Uva

Badulla

26025

25500

25500

 

Moneragala

4125

3300

3750

Sabaragamuwa

Ratnapura

2319

2420

2490

 

Kegalle 

127

135

150

NWP

Kurunegala

1125

1290

1350

 

Puttalam

174

420

732

Central

Kandy

10620

10950

11200

 

Matale

2280

4100

4700

 

Nuwara Eliya

15125

17375

18125

NCP

Anuradhapura

390

415

435

 

Polonnaruwa

75

190

200

Northern

Jaffna

-

-

-

 

Killinochchi

-

-

-

 

Mannar 

-

-

-

 

Vavuniya

-

-

-

 

Mulativu 

-

-

-

Eastern

Trincomalee

8965

9300

9450

 

Batticaloa 

-

-

-

 

Ampara

-

-

-

Mahaweli

Udawalawe

2280

4100

4700

 

System H

-

-

-

 

System B 

-

-

-

 

System C

-

-

-

 

System G

-

-

-

 

System L

-

-

-

Total

75066

81099

-

84460

Source - Economics Division HORDI