Beans

Beans: (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Climatic requirement
Bush beans and pole beans can be grown in all agro-ecological regions except the
up-country Wet Zone.

Soils
Well-drained soils are suitable (preferably pH 6); ill-drained soils can cause growth problems;

Land preparation
The soil should be ploughed to a depth of 30-40 cm and worked to a very fine tilth.

Recommended and promising varieties
1. Bush bean
a) Wade
Pods - dark green, round, fleshy, stringless and smooth surfaced, medium long
b) Top Crop
Pods-light green, flattened to round, stringless, medium long

2. Pole bean
a) Kentucky Wonder Green
Pods - green, oval cordate, medium size, stringy, slightly S-shaped
b) Kentucky Wonder Wax
Pods - light yellow, oval cordate, short to medium length, stringy, curved
c) Other promising varieties - Pees Butter, Katugastota, Lanka Nill

Seed rate
a) Bush bean - 75 kg/ha
b) Pole bean - 50 kg/ha

Time of planting
Planting after heavy rains is recommended for both Maha and Yala seasons.

Planting and spacing
a) Dibble seed on raised beds
b) Spacing
i. Bush bean - 50 x 10 cm
ii. Pole bean - 60 x 45 cm

After care
Stake pole beans when, support is required.


Fertilizer use
N-145 kg/ha (45 kg/ha if nodulation is satisfactory), P205-130 kg/ha, K2O-90 kg/ha
a) Basal - apply the following formulations and rates:
i. Urea - 190 kg/ha
ii. TSP- 285 kg/ha
iii. Muriate of potash -150 kg/ha
b) Top dressing - apply 125 kg/ha of urea 4 weeks after planting

Irrigation
Irrigate daily until germination is complete, then once every 2-3 days until the crop is established. Maintenance of adequate moisture during flowering and pod-¬filling stages is very important.

Weed control
1. Bush beans
a. Earth-up 1 week after planting.
b. Weed 3 weeks after planting to, coincide with fertilizer application.

2. Pole beans
a. Weed 2 and 6 weeks after planting.
b. When an-inverted trellis is used, two additional weedings are needed to control weeds between rows.


Disease control
1. Pythium rot (Pythium spp.)
a) Symptoms
i. Scorching of leaves

ii. Browning of basal stem and roots

b) Control
i. Avoid continuous cultivation of beans in the same field
ii. Facilitate good drainage
iii. Avoid excessive use of nitrogen
iv. Use recommended fungicides for seed and soil treatment

2. Collar rot (Sclerotium rolfsii)
a) Symptoms
i. Yellowing of leaves
ii. Rotting at base of stem
iii. Presence of a white mycelial mat at collar region

b) Control
i. Avoid accumulation of plant debris on the soil surface
ii. Use a recommended fungicide as a soil drench after positive identification of the organism

3. Anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum)
a) Symptoms
i. Sunken spots on pods and leaves
ii. Discolouration of buds and die back of plant

b) Control: Use a recommended fungicide

4. Rust (Uromyces sp.)
a) Symptoms: light reddish-brown coloured small; raised blister like spots appear on leaves and pods
b) Control: Use a recommended fungicide


5. Bacterial blight (Xanthomonas phaseoli)
a) Symptoms
i. Leaves develop water-soaked spots, turn brown, and fall
ii. Water-soaked spots appear on pods

b) Control
i. Follow a crop, rotation
ii. Use resistant varieties
iii. Remove all diseased plants at the earliest symptoms.

6. Bean mosaic virus
a) symptoms
i. Yellow and dark green mottling on leaves
ii. Plant stunting

b) control
i. Use resistant varieties
ii. Use virus-free seed
iii. Rogue infected plants
iv. Control weeds
v. Control aphid vectors with recommended insecticides

Yield
a) Bush bean: 6-10 tons/ha
b) Pole bean: 9-12 tons/ha

Post-harvest
Grade and handle pods carefully to avoid damage and pack in well-ventilated bags if transported long distances.

Seed production
1. Bush bean
In the up-country Intermediate Zone, about 2 t/ha of seed/ha can be produced when planted at a spacing of 40 x 10 cm and a density of 256,000 plants/ha.