Machineries used in Agriculture

With the coming of the Industrial Revolution and the development of more complicated machines, farming methods took a great leap forward. Instead of harvestinggrain by hand with a sharp blade, wheeled machines cut a continuous swath. Instead of threshing the grain by beating it with sticks, threshing machines separated the seeds from the heads and stalks. The first tractors appeared in the late 19th century. Now a day’s those agricultural machineries used in beginning of Land preparation up to harvesting and processing.

  1. Land preparation

Land preparation is important to ensure that the field is ready for planting. A well-prepared field controls weeds, recycles plant nutrients, and provides a soft soil mass for transplanting and a suitable soil surface for direct seeding.

Land preparation covers a wide range of practices from zero-tillage or minimum tillage which minimizes soil disturbance through to a totally 'puddled' soil which actually destroys soil structure.

It typically involves (1) plowing to "till" or dig-up, mix, and overturn the soil; (2) harrowing to break the soil clods into smaller mass and incorporate plant residue, and (3) leveling the field.

Primary land preparation
  • Mould Board Plough
  • It is the most Important plough for primary tillage in canal irrigated or heavy rain areas where too much weeds grow.
  • To completely invert and pulverize the soil, up-root all weeds, trash and crop residues and bury them under the soil.
  • It is also used for turning and mixing green manure crop for decaying under the soil, which adds humus to the soil.






Disc Plough

  • It is especially useful in hard and dry, trashy, stony or stumpy land conditions and in soil where scouring is a major problem.
  • It is more suitable for land in which there is much fibrous growth of weeds as the disc cuts and incorporates the weeds.




Secondary tillage implements

  • Lighter or finer operations performed on the soil after primary tillage is known as secondary tillage.
  • After ploughing, the fields are left with large clods with some weeds and partially uprooted stubbles.
  • Harrowing is to be done to a shallow depth to crush the clods and to uproot the remaining weeds and stubbles.
  • Rotary tiller

The rotary tiller is widely considered as the most important implement as it provides fine degree of soil pulverization.It is directly mounted to the tractor and operated.






  • Tine tiller


Crop establishment

  • Low land seeder

Used in row sowing of paddy in low land



Paddy power Transplanter

  • Equipment used for transplanting mat type paddy seedlings in the main field

Advantages of Transplanting

  • Weeding operations are more efficiently done by rotary weeder
  • Proper plant spacing makes uniform growth of plants
  • Other field manage­ment operations, such as spraying and fertilizer top dressing are made easier
  • Mechanical weeding can reduce the use of chemical herbicides

Up land seeder

Used for row seeding of pulses and cereals in upland



Crop Management

  • Intercultivator

The Intercultivator stirs soil deeply and is highly useful for controlling weeds in different crops for e.g. coconut, banana, sugarcane, tomato, cereal, and pulses. Used to stir and pulverize the soil, Intercultivator is suited for crops are cultivated in rows.


Low land weeders

  • Cono weeder

It has two rotating cone shaped drums, to control the weeds


  • Power weeder

Used to control weeds in trance planted paddy fields


Chemical application
  • Power Sprayers

Power Sprayers are one kind of portable, flexible and efficient machinery for plant protection. It is mainly used in prevention and cure of diseases and pests of plants such as paddy, fruit crops, tea, vegetables and other field crops.

  • Motorized Knapsack Mist Blower- Duster


  • Hydraulic Power Sprayers

  • Hand Operated Knapsack sprayer

Harvesting
  • Paddy reaper

The paddy reaper can be effectively use in paddy field for harvesting of paddy.


  • Thresher

Thresher is a agricultural machinery which is used in threshing of harvested paddy.

  • Mini Combine Harvester

The mini combine harvester is a machine that harvests paddy. The name derives from its combining two separate operations comprising harvesting – reaping and threshing.



  • Combine Harvester

The combine harvester is a machine that harvests grain crops. The name derives from its combining three separate operations comprising harvesting - reaping, threshing, and winnowinginto a single process.


Land preparation

3 tine tiller for 2W riding type tractor


  • Operation: Primary land preparation using 2W riding type tractor
  • Field capacity: 0.5ha/day
  • Price: Rs.25,000/=

Crop Group: Rice

Manual paddy transplanter



01. Function

- Transplant rice seedlings in peddled lowland

02. Specifications

Type

- Manually operated pull type

Power

- Manual

Overall dimensions

- L = 1460 mm W = 1030 mm H = 580 mm

Weight

- 25.5 kg

Spacing

- 20 mm (variable plant spacing)

03. Suitable crop

- Row planting of mat type paddy seedlings

04. Field capacity

- 0.35 ha/day (0.8 acres/day)

05. Cost

Approximate price

-

06. Status

- Commercially available

  • Operation: Transplant paddy seedlings by 8 inch row spacing
  • Field capacity: 4rows transplanter-0.4ha/day

6rows transplanter-0.5ha/day

  • Price: 4rows transplanter-Rs.35000/=
  • 6rows transplanter-Rs.40,000/=

Bucket Seeder


01. Function:

- Sowing pre-germininated paddy in rows

02. Specifications:

No. pf rows

- 04

Seed rate

- 30 kg/acre

Row spacing

- 200 mm

Overall dimensions

- W x H x L = 900 x 750 x 1080 (mm)

Weight

- 18 kg

03. Field capacity

- 2.5 acre/day

04. Power source

- Manual

Approximate price

Rs.18,000/=

06. Status:

- Commercially available


Drum seeder


  • Seed Consumption : 12 kg/acre
  • Operation: Row seeding by 8 inch spacing with 4inch hill distance
  • Field Capacity : 3-4 acres/day
  • Commercial Value “ Rs. 20,000/=

Riding type Drum Seeder


  • No of rows: 10
  • Row width: 8 inches
  • Hill distance: 4-5 inches
  • Seed rate: 15 kg/acre
  • Power: engine driven
  • Justification : Capacity of the existing manual Drum seeder is not enough to cater large scale farmers. Engine powered riding type seeder is the only way to fulfill the requirement.
  • Field Capacity : 6 acres/Day

Cono weeder


01. Function

- Control weeds in row cultivated paddy fields

02. Specifications

Type

- Single and double row versions are available

Power

- Manuel

Overall dimensions

- L = 1750 W = 160mm

Weight

- 8.5 kg maximum

03. Suitable row spacing

- 200 mm

04 . Field capacity

- 0.2 ha/day

Approximate price

- Rs.5000/=

06. Status

- Commercially available

  • Operation: Weed between 2 rows
  • Field capacity: 0.5acres/day
  • Price: Rs.5,000/=

Low Land Power Weeder (wheel type)


  • Justification : An engine driven weeder to weed control in line established paddy fields is highly required as the existing cono-weeder was not popularized due to it’s low field capacity.
  • Field capacity- 1ha/day
  • Price- Rs. 50,000.00

Track type Weeder


  • Justification : An engine driven weeder to weed control in line established paddy fields is highly required as the existing cono-weeder was not popularized due to its low field capacity.
  • Field capacity- 1ha/day
  • Price- Rs. 65,000.00
1.2 m Paddy Reaper Attachment for Two Wheel Tractor



01. Function

- Cut paddy and leaves it in parallel swaths on the field. Suitable for standing crop and crop lodged up - to 45 degrees.

02. Specifications

Power

- Two wheel tractor

Overall dimensions

- L = 2500 mm W = 1440 mm H = 1010 mm (including tractor)

Weight

- 50 kg

Cutting width

- 1200 mm

Cutting speeds

- 2.8 km/hr. 3rd gear

- 5.0 km/hr 4th. Gear

No. of cutting blades

- 16

03. Field capacity

- 0.2 - 0.3 ha/hour(0.5 - 0.8acres/hour)

04. Cutting loss

- Less than 1%

05. Cost

Approximate price


High capacity Paddy thresher powered by 12hp 2W tractor



01. Function

- threshing and cleaning harvested paddy

02. Specifications

Type

-Axial flow Cleanings Oscillating sheives and blowing type

Power

12HP two wheel tractor

Overall dimensions

- Length =3300 mm, height =2230mm, weight=2100mm

Weight

-

Capacity

- 1.5 Acre/hr

Maximum length of operation

-Not applicable

Seed damage

-Nil

04. Cost

Approximate price

-

05. Status

- Commercially available

  • Operation: Threshing paddy
  • Field capacity: 10acres/day
  • Price: Rs.250,000/=

Steel Body Seed Paddy Cleaner




01. Function

- Separate chaff, empty grains, half filled grain weed seeds and small size seeds from the pre-cleaned paddy.

02. Specifications

Overall dimensions

- 1720mm x 775mm x 1325mm

Capacity

- 150 - 200kg/h - seed paddy

- 500kg/hr. Consumption paddy

Power source

- 2 wheel tractor/ 1 hp electric motor

03. Cost

Approximate price

04. States

- Commercially available


  • Reliable steel structure
  • Durable Oscillation unit
  • Capacity : 200 kg/h
  • Suitable for both Samba & Nadu

High Capacity seed paddy cleaner



  • Reliable steel structure
  • Durable Oscillation unit
  • Capacity : 400kg/h
  • Brushing mechanism to remove struck seeds
  • Suitable for both Samba & Nadu
  • Justification : Capacity and durability of existing seed paddy cleaner is not enough comparing with the present demand. A project is ongoing to increase the durability and to increase the capacity.

Crop Group : Other Field Crops

Manual high land seeder

01. Function

- Row seeding of commonly grown field crops

02. Specifications

Type

- Two row pulling type

Power

- Manual

Overall dimensions

- L = 1400mm W = 900mm H = 420mm

Weight

- 17 kg

Spacing

- Variable from 200mm to 600mm

Seed rate

- Varies according to the crop

03. Suitable crops

- Green gram, Soya beans, Cowpea, Black gram, Pegionpea, Maize, High land paddy ect.

04. Field capacity:

- 0.5 to 1.0 ha/day

05.Approximate price:

-Rs.18,000/=

06. States

- Commercially available

Sesame seeder



01. Function

- Sowing seeds , in rows

02. Specifications

Type

- Metering by gravity flowing

Power

- Manuel

Overall dimensions

- L = 1400mm X W =

Weight

- 5-7kg

Capacity

- 1 / 2 – 1 ha/day

Maximum length of operation

-

Seed damage

- nil

03. Suitable seeds

Sesame , Maize Green Gram , Cowpea

04. Cost

Approximate price

-3500/-

05. Status

- Commercially available

2W tractor coupled seeder for Pulses and Maize


Operation: Row seeding
  • Field capacity: 5acres/day
  • Price: Rs. 50,000/=

2W tractor coupled Injector Plantar


  • Operation: Row seeding maize no tillage condition
  • Field capacity: 5acres/day
  • Price: Rs. 50,000/=

4 Wheel tractor coupled Injector Planter with fertilizer applicator


  • No of rows : 4
  • Row width : 80 cm
  • Hill distance : 23 cm
  • Crop : Maize
  • Field capacity: 10acres/day
  • Price: Rs.150,000/=

2 Wheel Tractor Coupled Rotary Seeder – Walking Type


  • No of rows : 2
  • Row width : Adjustable
  • Hill distance : Adjustable
  • Crops : Green Gram, Black Gram, Cowpea, Soya and Maize
  • Justification: performance of the existing 2 wheel tractor coupled seeder is highly depend on the field preparation conditions (fine preparation of field is required). Seeder attached to the rotovator will save the time and money.
  • Field capacity- 3 acre/day
  • Price- Rs. 65,000.00

2 Wheel Tractor Coupled Rotary Seeder – Riding Type


  • Justification : Performance of the existing 2 wheel tractor coupled seeder is highly depend on the field preparation conditions (finely prepared field is required). Seeder attached to the rotavator will save the time and money.
  • Field capacity- 3 acer/day
  • Price- Rs. 65,000.00

4W Tractor Tine Tiller Coupled Seeder


  • Justification: A high capacity OFC seeder is needed which could operate in no tillage condition. This tine tiller coupled seeder has accurate and high field capacity. It can work in adverse field conditions
  • Capacity : 6 acres/day
  • Price- Rs. 125,000.00

Ground Nut Ridger + Seeder


  • Justification: This machine was fabricated to fulfil the requirement for a ground nut seeder to do seeding on ridges.
  • Capacity: 2-4 acres per day

2W tractor attached rotary use as weeder for maize


  • Operation: Weeding between rows
  • Field capacity: 5acres/day
  • Price: No additional cost

Rigger for 2W tractor


  • Operation: Form riggers for maize
  • Field capacity: 5acres/day
  • Price: Rs.4000/=

Multi - Crop Thresher




01. Function

- Thresh paddy, Maize, sunflower and Soybean.

02. Specifications

Capacities

Paddy

- 700kg/h

Maize

- 1000kg/h

Sunflower

- 900kg/h

Soybeans

- 700kg/h

Grain recovery

- about 98%

Grain damage

- Less than 1% (Paddy, Sunflower , Soybeans) Less than 2% (maize)

Overall dimensions

- W x H x L = 1530 x 1520 x 1600 mm

Weight

-190 kg

03. Power source

- 7.5 hp power tiller/electric motor

04. Cost

Approximate price

05. States

- Commercially available

Maize thresher


  • Power Source : 2W Tractor
  • Capacity : up to 2,000 kg/hr
  • Price: Rs.175,000/=

4 Wheel tractor attached high capacity Maize thresher


  • Justification : Mal-practice of using paddy threshers for maize threshing is popular among farmers as there are no suitable high capacity threshers.
  • Expected output : Maize thresher, driven by 4 wheel tractor with a capacity of 5 tons/hour and threshing recovery of 95% with higher cleaning efficiency.
  • Expected price- Rs.400,000.00

Manual Groundnut De-coati cater



01. Function

- Remove shell from the groundnut by rubbing action

02. Specifications

Overall dimensions

- 560 mm x 560 mm x 1700 mm

Capacity

- 60 kg/hr

Seed damage

- less than 2%

Power source

- nil

03. Cost

Approximate price

- Rs. 5000.00

05. Status

- Ready for industrial and agricultural extension

Motorized Groundnut De-coati cater



  • Justification : Groundnut decorticating is costly activity and present practices and machines are not enough for the demand. Machines with different capacities to suit for different scales is required.
  • Expected output : Electrical motor driven machines, with capacities of 100 kg/hour to 400kg/hour
  • Price- 130,000/= to Rs.260,000/=

Finger millet thresher

  • Justification : Traditional method of Finger millet threshing is costly and high labor consuming, resulting higher production cost.
  • Expected output : Electrical motor driven machine,capable of performing both threshing and de-husking operations at a rate of 50-60 kg/hour.
  • Price- Rs. 75,000.00

B-Onion Seed Extractor


  • Justification: Removing seed from B-Onion flower is a difficult and tedious task which should be performed under hot sun manually. This machine separate seed from flower at high efficiency with greater quality.
  • Capacity: 100 kg/hr

Pulse Processing Machine


01. Function

- Grading, dehulling and splitting of grain legumes

02. Suitable crops

- Pigeonpea,Black gram, Green gram, Cowpea, Soybean

03.Capacity

- 03 - 40 kg per hour

04. Recovery rate

- 67-75%

05.Weight

- 130 kg

06. Overall dimensions

- H = 1500 mm L = 1800 mm W = 950 mm

07. Power sources

- 0.7 KW electric motor (single phase)

08. Approximate price


Groundnut pod remover


  • Justification : present practice manual pod removing is highly time consuming and require lots of man power, causing higher production cost.
  • Expected output : Electrical motor driven machine, capable of removing pods from the groundnut bushes.
  • Capacity: 0.5ares/day
  • Price: Rs. 105,000/=

Cassava slicer



  • Justification : Manual slicing done by knives is time consuming and cannot obtain fine slices. This Motor driven slice cassava into thin slices.

Irrigation water pumps

Treadle Pump


01. Function

- Lifting water from wells and reservoirs.

02. Suitable for

- Lifting water from deep water sources up to 8 m

03. Capacity

- 2,500ltr./hr(at 6 m suction head)

04. Overall dimensions

- H = 1350 mm L = 430 mm W = 350 mm

05. Power by:

- Manual(one operator)

06. Approximate Price

-

07. Total lift

- Suction up to 8 m No delivery head

08. Status

- Commercially available


6 inch Axial Flow Water Pump

01. Function

- Lift water from shallow water sources in large capacity.

02. Specifications

Type

- Axial flow ( propeller)pump

Power

- 5hp engine or two wheel tractor engine

Overall dimensions

- L = 3700mm Diameter = 150 mm

Weight

- 25 kg. (without engine)

Application

- Low lift irrigation & drainage

Capacity

- 1600 liters/min at 2m head

Total lift

- Up - to 3 meters

Fuel consumption

- Approx. 1 liter per hr.(depending on power source)

Approximate price

04. Status

- Commercially available

4 Wheel tractor coupled Axial flow water pump


  • Capacity : 20 000 l/min
  • Diameter : 12”
  • Delivery Head : 10 ft
  • Justification : FMRC designed 2 wheel tractor coupled axial flow water pump is suitable for small scale farmers. High capacity 4 wheel tractor driven pump is required when large capacities are needed.
  • Expected output : 4 wheel tractor driven 12 inches diameter axial flow water pump with a capacity of 20,000 liters/min and ability to lift the water up to 10 feet.
  • Price- Rs. 125,000.00

Hand tools

Three Point Inter-Cultivator


01. Function

- The young weeds could be rooted-up & the soil could be loosened by pulling the inter-cultivation and walking backwards

02. Specifications

Type

- Hook type

Power

- Manuel

Overall dimensions

- L = 1700 W = 130 mm H = 140 mm

Weight

- 1.8 kg maximum

03 . Field capacity

- 0.1 ha/day

04. Cost

Approximate price

05. Status

- Commercially available

High Land Weeder (Mulch)


01. Function

- This implement could be used as a weeding tool to remove weed between rows

02. Specifications

Type

- Manuel, push type

Power

- Manuel

Overall dimensions

- L = 1350 mm W = 210 mm

Weight

- 4 kg

width of cut

- 140 mm

03. Suitable crops

- Can be used in any upland planted crop

04. Suitable soils

- Light to medium soil

05 . Field capacity

- 0.20 ha/day (08 hrs)

06. Labour requirement

- 30 man hours/ha

Approximate price

08. Status

- Commercially available


Swiss Hoe

01. Function

- A cutting blade is retrieved to the frame mounted on a set of jaws in such a way as to permit a light swing action to and fro. Effective weeding is accomplished as the person walks forward, as the swinging action continues.

02. Specifications

Type

- Swinging blade type

Power

- Manuel

Overall dimensions

- L = 1560 mm W = 170 mm H = 200 mm

width of cut

- 170 mm

03.. Field capacity

- 0.20 ha/day (08 hrs)

04. Labor requirement

- 20 man hours/ha

Approximate price

- Rs. 400.00

08. Status

- Commercially available


Chopping Hoe

01. Function

- This implement could be used as a weeding tool to remove weed between the furrows and earth-up soil

02. Specifications

Type

- Long handle digging manual

Power

- Manuel

Overall dimensions

- L = 1200 mm W = 160 mm H = 150 mm

Weight

- 2 kg

width of cut

- 160 mm

03. Suitable crops

- Highland crops above 18 cm row spacing

05 . Field capacity

- 0.03 ha/hr.

06. Labour requirement

- 30 man hours/ha

Approximate price

- Rs. 400.00

08. Status

- Commercially available


Fruit Harvester (cup type)


01. Function

- The whole fruit is inserted into the cup and a little up-word push will detached the fruit from the stem and collects in the cup

02. Specifications

Type

- Cup type

Power

- Manuel

Overall dimensions

- L = 2500 mm W = 160 mm H = 300 mm

Weight

- 1.5 kg (with handle)

Capacity

- 50 kg/hr (varies according to the situation)

03. Suitable fruits

- Papaw

05 . Field capacity

- 0.03 ha/hr.

06. Cost

Approximate price

- Rs. 525.00

08. Status

- Ready for commercially available

Fruit harvester (Scissor type)


01. Function

- The stem of the fruit can be cut by operating the scissor from the ground. The built-in net collects harvested fruit

02. Specifications

Type

- Scissor type

Power

- Manuel

Overall dimensions

- L = 3000 mm W = 230 mm

Weight

- 1.75 kg (with handle)

Capacity

- 50 kg/hr (varies according to the situation)

Maximum length of operation

- 3 m (from the operator)

Fruit Damage

- nil

03. Suitable fruits

- Mangos, Avocadoes, Guava, Rambutan

04. Cost

Approximate price

- Rs. 1500.00

05. Status

- Commercially available

Fruit Harvester (Cup & hook type)


01. Function

- The whole bunch of fruit is inserted into the cup so that the stem is placed in between the hook. While pulling the tool, the fruit will detached from the stem and collect the cup

02. Specifications

Type

- Cup & hook type

Power

- Manuel

Overall dimensions

- L = 2500 mm W = 180 mm H = 400 mm

Weight

- 1.6 kg (with handle)

Capacity

- 50 kg/hr (varies according to the situation)

Maximum length of operation

- 2.5 m (from the operator)

Fruit Damage

- nil

03. Suitable fruits

- Mangos

04. Cost

Approximate price

- Rs.525.00

05. Status

- Commercially available

Fruit Harvester (Castle type)



01. Function

- The whole bunch of fruit is interested into the net so that the stem is placed in between the grove. While pulling the tool, the fruit will detached from the stem and collect in the net

02. Specifications

Type

- Castle type

Power

- Manuel

Overall dimensions

- L = 2500 mm W = 15 mm

Weight

- 1.6 kg (with handle)

Capacity

- 50 kg/hr (varies according to the situation)

Maximum length of operation

- 2.5 m (from the operator)

Fruit Damage

- nil

03. Suitable fruits

- Mangos

04. Cost

Approximate price

- Rs.425.00

05. Status

- Commercially available