Groundnut
Present status
Groundnut is a crop which cultivated in highlands under rainf ed condition in Maha season and in paddy lands under irrigation during yala season in dry and intermediate zones. It is grown mainly in Moneragala, Kurunegala, Ampara, Badulla, puttalam and Rathnapura districts. Though groundnut is an oil crop, in Sri Lanka it is demanded as snacks and confectionaries.
Nutritive value

Content/100g

Raw

Roasted

Defatted flour

Calories (g)

564.0

582.0

371.0

Proteins (g)

26.0

26.0

45.0

Fat (g)

47.5

48.7

5.8

Carbohydrates (g)

18.6

20.6

30.0

Calcium (mg)

69.0

72.0

127.0

Phosphorus (mg)

401.0

401.0

800.0

Iron (mg)

2.1

2.2

33.5

Thiamine (B1)(mg)

1.14

0.32

0.75

Riboflavin (B2)(mg)

0.13

0.13

0.35

Niacin (mg)

17.2

17.2

2.5


Source: Burn and Huffman (1975)
Recommended varieties

Variety

Year of Release

Red Spanish

1961

Tissa

1993

Walawa

1993

Indi

1994

Tikiri

2004

ANK G 1

2012


Tissa

Pedigree

Irradiated mutant of the variety Vietnam

Origin

RARDC , Angunakolapelessa

Year of Release

1993

Plant

Leaf

Pod

Seed

General remarks

Growth habit Erect

Leaf Colour light green

Peg colour present

No of seeds /pod 02

Shelling % 69 -70

Stem pigmentation
Absent

Leaflet length
65 mm
Leaflet width 40 mm

No. of pods/plant 28-42
Pod beak moderate Pod constriction deep
Pod reticulation prominent
Pod length 29 mm

Seed colour tan
100 seed weight33-40g

Average yield 2500-2700 kg ha-1
Potential yield 3775 kg ha-1

Sound mature seeds (SMS) 70-72%

Oil content 42%

Oleic/linoleic acid ratio 0.97

50% flowering 30-35 days

Days to maturity 90-100

Response to day length- neutral



Walawa

Pedigree

CRISAT Accn. No HYQ - (CG) - S - 49

Origin

selected at RARDC, Angunakolapelessa.

Year of Release

1993

Plant

Leaf

Pod

Seed

General remarks

Growth habit
Non erect

Leaf Colour
dark green

Peg colour
present (brownish green)

No of seeds /pod 2 - 3

Shelling % 70 - 72

Stem pigmentation
Absent

Leaflet length 64 mm
Leaflet width
31 mm

No. of pods/plant 28-35 Pod beak absent Pod constriction slight Pod reticulation

prominent
Pod length 37mm

Seed colour tan
100 seed weight 69 - 71g

Average yield 2800-3500 kg ha-1 Potential yield 3483 kg ha-1

Sound mature seeds (SMS) 72-74%

Oil content 30%
Oleic/linoleic acid ratio 2.2

Maturity period 125-135 days

50% flowering 30-35 days
Days of planting to harvesting 90-100

Response to day length - neutral




Indi

Pedigree

ICRISAT line- (ICGS-11)

Origin

Selected at RARDC, Angunakolapalassa.

Year of Release

1994

Plant

Leaf

Pod

Seed

General remarks

Growth habit
erect

Leaf Colour
dark green

Average no of pods/plant
24-28

Size medium

Days to flower 35 days

Stem pigmentation
present

Nodulation
Present

Pod size-medium

No of seeds/pod – 1-2

Seed colour Pink

Average pod yield - 2800 kg ha-1

Weight/100 seeds -55-58g

Field tolerance to Bud Necrosis Diseases and suitable for cultivation in Maha season

Flower colour yellow




Tikiri

Pedigree

(ICGS 44 x TG 2E) F2-B1-B2-B1-B1-B1-B1

Origin

Introduction from ICRISAT (ICGV- 86015) Selected at RARDC, Angunakolapalassa.

Year of Release

2004

Plant

Leaf

Pod

Seed

General remarks

Growth habit Semi erect

Leaf Colour dark green

Average no of pods/plant

24-28 No of seeds/ pod 1-2

Days to maturity 100 - 110

Stem pigmentation
Present

Leaflet length 65 mm Leaflet width
40 mm

100 pod weight -125 g
Pod size medium
Beak - slight
Reticulation - slight/moderate

Size medium
Colour Light purple
Weight/100 seed - 56 g

Tolerant to major groundnut diseases.
Not recorded severe pest attacks.

Branching pattern
Sequential

Peg pigmentation present

Average pod yield 2500-3000 kg ha-1

Nodulation Present

Peg is strong. Therefore yield loss is low.

Days to flowering - 30-40 days
Flower colour -Yellow

Identified for boiled type peanut.


ANK G1

Pedigree

Tissa * Red spanish

Origin

GLORDC, Angunakolapalassa.

Year of Release

2012

Plant

Leaf

Pod

Seed

General remarks

Growth habit
erect

Leaf Colour-
Light green

Pod reticulation- Prominent

Size -medium

Days to flower -35 days

Branching pattern- Sequential

Nodulation
Present

Pod size-medium

No of seeds/pod - 02

Seed colour- purple red

Average pod yield 2300-3000 kg ha-1

Weight/100 seeds -45-53g

Field tolerance major diseases

High consumer preference.



Field Establishment
Soil requirement

Groundnut is grown in a well-drained sandy loam or clay loam soil. Deep well drained soils with a p H of 6.5 - 7.0 and high fertility are ideal for groundnut.

Land preparation
One ploughing to a depth of 15-20 cm followed by two or three harrowing may be required to make a seedbed with a fine tilth.
* Spacing L : 45 x 15 cm one Plant/hill
* Seeding depth : 2.5-3 cm
* Planting material : Seeds
* Time of planting : maha - October; Yala – April
Seed rate
Walawa- 130kg/ha (with shell) 100kg/ha (without shell)
Other varieties- 100 kg/ha (with shell) 70 kg/ha (without shell)
Crop Management

Cultural practices
Weed control
Three and six weeks after planting weed control is needed. In second weeding earthing up is needed.

Fertilizer application
Nutrient requirement

Urea kg/ha

TSP kg/ha

MOP kg/ha

Basel dressing

35

100

75

Top dressing (at flowering)

30

-

-



Irrigation
In first three weeks, irrigate once in four in four days and thereafter irrigate once in 10-12 days. After seed filling and maturing, stop irrigation.



Diseases and insect pest control

Diseases/ Pest

Symptoms

Control

Early leaf spot
Cercospora arachidicola


Leaf spots with yellow rings


Use recommended fungicides

Late leaf spot
Cercosporidium personatum

Black colour leaf spots

Rust
Puccinia arachidis

Orange colour pustules can be seen on lower surface of the leaves

Stem rot
(Southern blight, Root rot, Sclerotium rot, Sclerotium wilt)
Sclerotium rolfsii

- Sudden wilting of a branch which is completely or partially in contact with the soil
- Leaves turn brown and wilt
- White coating of fungus myceliyum is formed near the soil level
- Sclerotia of mustard seed size appear on the infected areas
- The entire plant may killed later

- Remove affected plants and destroy.

It is needed to treat soils and seeds chemically
- Crop rotation

Bud Necrosis Disease (BND)
(Tomato spotted wilt vires)

- Necrosis of the terminal bud
- Plants stunt
- Leaves formed on the axillary shoots show wild range of symptoms, reduction in size, distortion of limina, mottling, chlorosis

- Plant time is important. Late planting may be a cause for disease
- Vector control is needed

- Leaf eating caterpillars
- Termites
- Thrips


Use recommended pesticides





Harvesting & Post-harvest Technology
Harvesting

Harvesting period can be decided by,
- According to the age of the variety
- When the foliage turns to yellow colour
- 75-80% pods of a plant are matured
- When the internal surface of the pod is brown in colour

Processing
- Wash picked pods well and dry the pods in shade
- Drying in shade throughout long period results seeds with high viability
- Before storing remove the diseased and damaged pod
Economics & marketing

Cultivated extent and production

Year

Extent (ha)

Production (mt)

Average yield (mt/ha)

2008

10275

10251

0.65

2009

9002

13077

1.45

2010

9481

14354

1.51

2011

9289

16903

1.81

2012

11609

21953

1.89


Source: Socio Economic & Planning Centre, Dept. of Agriculture (Agstat)

Imports and exports

Year

Imports

Exports

Quantity (mt)

Quantity (mt)

2007

3847

0.64

2008

4174

0.44

2009

4005

0.63

2010

4604

0.67

2011

4920

1.4


Source: Socio Economic & Planning Centre, Dept. of Agriculture (Agstat)

Cost of Cultivation-(Moneragala District-rainfed, 2009/10 maha)

Year

Imports

Exports

Quantity (mt)

Quantity (mt)

2007

3847

0.64

2008

4174

0.44

2009

4005

0.63

2010

4604

0.67

2011

4920

1.4


Source: Socio Economic & Planning Centre, Dept. of Agriculture (Agstat)