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Grapes

Grapes (Vitis venefera)
Recommended Varieties
Israel blue

Type            

Table variety

Vine vigor         

Vigorous

Training system   

Pandol

Fruit colour        

Dark blue or black

Fruit shape        

Round to oval

Bunch shape      

Cylindrical


Cardinal

Type            

Table variety

Vine vigor         

Moderately Vigorous

Training system   

Pandol or GDC

Fruit colour        

Dark pink to pink

Fruit shape        

Round

Bunch shape      

Cylindrical to round



Black Muscat

Type            

Table variety

Vine vigor         

Vigorous

Training system   

Pandol or GDC

Fruit colour        

Dark purple

Fruit shape        

Round to oval, medium sized fruits

Bunch shape      

Conical, sometimes winged


Muscat MI

Type            

Wine variety for red wine, and can be used as a table

Vine vigor         

Moderately Vigorous

Training system   

Pandol or GDC or other fences systems

Fruit colour        

Dark purple, medium sized fruits

Fruit shape        

Round to oval

Bunch shape      

Conical to cylindrical




French MI

Type            

Wine variety for white wine

Vine vigor         

Vigorous

Training system   

Pandol or GDC

Fruit colour        

Light green at ripen

Fruit shape        

Round to oval

Bunch shape      

Cylindrical, winged


Field Establishment
Environment requirement
Can be grown successfully, well-drained, deep soils in the dry zone of Sri Lanka, under irrigation.

Crop Management
Agronomic and cultural practices
Planting should be done with the onset of dry spell. Size of the planting hole is 1m X 1m X 1m, and should be filled with a mixture of topsoil and well-decomposed cow-dung at a ratio of 1:1. Spacing varies with the vine training system adopted.

Pandol system : 8m X 4m
Geneva double curtain system (GDC) : 2.6m X 3m
Fence systems : 2.6m X 3m

Fertilizer requirement

Stage of the crop

Urea (g/vine)

TSP (g/vine)

MOP (g/vine)

At planting 

120

80

250

Four months after planting

120

80

250

After first pruning 

180

120

375

After 2nd pruning 

240

160

500

After 3rd pruning 

300

200

625

After 4th pruning  

360

240

750

After 5th pruning

420

280

875

After 6th pruning & on ward

480

320

1000


Pruning
Pruning is an essential practice in viticulture. In Sri Lanka grapes can be pruned two times a year, that is in mid June and end of December. However, time of pruning have to determine, considering the prevailing weather condition and the growing phase of the vines. In general, irrigation has to stop five days before and after pruning and should irrigate as necessary in other times.

Pest and Disease
Pests
Vine girdler, cuts the mature vines; can be controlled
Paddle legged bug, feed on young shoots and caused to dried off the shoots; can be controlled

Diseases
Powdery and downy mildew, damage the new shoots, leaves, flowers and flower inflorescence. Can be controlled by adopting recommended cultural practices and using chemicals, (Metalaxil, or Bordeaux mixture).
Harvesting & Post-harvest Technology
Grapes vines can be maintained up to thirty years as a crop. Average yield is about 20-25 Mt/ha. After 3-4 years of establishment a vine can produce over 30 Kg of fruits per year. In addition an additional income can be obtained by planting material production, as there is a great demand for planting materials at present.

Crop: Grapes
Program: Crop Improvement

Activity

Responsibility

Indicators

Time Frame

Station

Officer

Germplasm collection
and evaluation

MI,
Weerawila  

     

Possibility of generating
varities from seeds by
tissue culture techniques

PGRC
HORDI 

     

Program: Crop Management

Activity

Responsibility

Indicators

Time Frame

Station

Officer


Development of traning & pruning techniques.

MI A.pelessa   

S.G.Piyadasa

Traning systems

08 Yrs (2002-2010)

Studies on shoot density

MI    

S.G.Piyadasa

Pruning techniques

 

Studies on irrigation management

A'pelessa

     


Program: Plant Protection

Activity

Responsibility

Indicators

TimeFrame

Station

Officer

Screening of fungicides and development of control measures for downy mildew disease.

MI, Makandura

     

Studies on controlling insect pest problems.

HORDI

     

Program: Planting Material Production

Activity

Responsibility

Indicators

Time Frame

Station

Officer

Production of planting material of recommende varieties

MI

S.G.Piyadasa

Production and maintence of motherstocks.

 cont.