Pineapple
Ananas comosus (L) 2n=50

Introduction
Family : Bromeliaceae
Include 60 genera and 1500 spp

Origin :- South America

  1. Semi perennial herb, 90 - 100 cm in height with a leaf spread of 130 - 150 cm and a terminal inflorescence of fruit
  2. Confined to Tropics & Sub tropics (250 between N & S from equator)
  3. Growth continued after fruiting by one or more auxiliary buds in the leaf axil growing in to vegetative branches (suckers) as a ratoon crops.
  4. Plants may continue living and fruiting for over fifty years.
  5. In commercial production, several ratoon crops are taken (2-6 harvesting)‍
  6. Although its' a seasonal crop, there is a chance to obtain fruits throughout the year by application of flower induction hormones.


Nature of the pineapple

  • Produce Functional germ cells
  • But cannot be self fertilized.
  • Cross compatible & set seeds
  • No natural cross pollination (except by Humming birds)
  • About 150 flowers /fruits
  • Opening start from base (5-10 Flowers / days)
  • Continues up to 10-15 days


Nutritive Values
(per 100g of edible fruit)

Water

87.8 g

Energy

46.0 k cal

Protein

0.4 g

Fat

0.1 g

Carbohydrates

10.8 g

Calcium

20.0 mg

Phosphorus

9.0 g

Iron

1.2 mg

Carotene (Vit. A)

18.0 ug

Thiamine

200.0 ug

Riboflavin (Vit. B)

120.0 ug

Niacin

0.1 ug

Vitamin C

39.0 mg


Commercial usage of pineapple
Ripen fruits :-

  • use as a dessert
  • Syrup (juice)
  • Alcohol
  • Citric Acid
  • Residues - Cattle feed and fertilizer
  • Leaves Fibers-



Medicinal Values
Ripe fruit: Possesses germicidal, laxative, and invigorative properties, contains digestive enzyme increases appetite.
Useful in cardiovascular disorders.
Unripe fruit: Can cause abortion


Nature of cultivation
Medium and large scale orchards and home gardens.


Availability
May - June (Major season) Prices are low
December - January (Minor season)

Obtain fruits throughout the year by Hormone application - Prices are high


Pineapple cultivation extent and production in Sri Lanka

District

Extent (ha)

Production ('000 fruits)

1. Gampaha

1,694

8,969

2. Kurunegala

2,069

25,170

3. Badulla

115

1,201

4. Puttlam

199

1,329

5. Moneragala

157

1,140

SriLanka (Total)

4,825

40,716

Source: Department of Census and Statistics of Sri Lanka.


Major Growing Areas
Kurunagala , Gampaha , Badhulla , Puttlam , Moneragala , Colombo and Gale.



Suitable climatic zones for pineapple cultivation in Sri Lanka

Wet Zone

WL1

WL2

WL3

RF

>100"

>75"

>60"

Soil

Red yellow podsolic

Red yellow podsolic

Red yellow podsolic

Hiniduma, Ratnapura,Morawaka,
Agalawatta, Bombuwela

Kegalla, Pelmadulla
Warakapola Polgahawela
Mapalana Nakiadeniya

Walpita, Mirigama,Veyanoda, Mahara


Recommended Varieties

1. Cayenne = Smooth cayenne = "Kew" Pineapple in SriLanka
2. Queen = "Mauritius" in SriLanka
3. Singapore Spanish

Commercial varieties in SriLanka

Characters

Kew

Mauritius

1.Presence of spins in leaves

No

Yes

2.Quality of flesh

Very Good

Excellent

3. Canning quality

Very Good

Fair

4. Fruit Yield

High

Average

5. Fruit weight (kg)

2.5 - 4

1.2 - 2

6. Shape of the fruit

Cylindrical

Conical

7. Color of the ripen fruit

Yellow with green mottling

Golden yellow

8. Flavor and aroma

Pleasant

Excellent

9. Wilt resistance

Susceptible

Moderately susceptible

10. Drought resistance

Moderately resistant

Resistant

11. Farmer preference

Medium

High

12. Cultivated extent

Very low (5%)

Very high (95%)


Diseases of Pineapple

1. Pineapple wilt
2. Yellow spots
3. Heart/root rot
4. Butt rot
5. Phythium rot
6. Acetic souring
7. Glassy spoilage
8. Yeast fermentation

Pineapple wilt
Symptoms

  • Slow growth on roots
  • Inhibit the root actions
  • Deteriorating of root tissue
  • Red colour leaf tips


Control

  • Select the suitable land
  • Controlling ants and mealy bugs
  • Using healthy plants, pretreatment of suckers before planting
  • Control the plant density (Desuckering after harvesting)
  • Weeds control
  • Shade control
  • Control the excess fertilizer application


Pests of Pineapple

1. Mealy bug
2. Fruit borer
3. Stem borer
4. Nematodes
5. Rats
6. Termites
7. Pineapple bug/beatle
8. Symphylids
9. Pineapple mites
10. Scale insects

Control of pineapple pest and diseases

Name

Chemical

Time of application

Concentration

1.Mealy bug

Selecron / Tokuthion

Preplanting and 5,8 and 14 months after planting

30 ml liquefy in 10 l of water

2. Head /root rot

Ridomil / Mancozeb

Preplanting ,dip the suckers 5 minutes in the mixture

Ridomil 200 ml+ 100 l of water
Mancozeb 10 g + 100 l of water

3. Pythium rot

1.Mancozeb
2.Topzin

If disease present only

5.0g liquefy in 10 l of water




Climatic Requirements
Elevation
Up to 1000 m from the sea level ( higher elevations fruit contains high acidity)

Optimum temperature
24- 270 C

Mean Annual Rain fall
1000 mm (635 - 2500 mm)

Low country wet & intermediate zones more suitable (with supplementary irrigation Dry zone also suitable)

Well drained , deep and gravel soils are much better.

Poor drainage soils are not good

Optimum soil PH = 5.5-6.5

Salinity and alkalinity soils are not good except little acidity and heavy clay

Should be exposed to sunlight in the open field or intercrop with young or old coconut

Ca and Mn rich soils are not good. (Cholorosis may appear)

Planting Material

Type of suckers

Duration from planting to harvesting (months)

1. Ground suckers

12 -14

2. Stem suckers

14 - 16

3. Slips

20 - 22

4. Crown

24

5. Tissue culture plants

15 - 18

6. Seedling

30




Planting material production ratio

Types of planting material

Ratio

1. Crown splitting

1:20

2. Stem sections

1:30

3. Normal suckers per plant

1: 2 - 3

4. Seedlings per fruit (by artificial cross pollination)

1:150

5. Suckers from decapitation per plant

1:20

6. Tissue culture plantlets per shoot

1:6000


Plants requirement (ha)

Planting System

Mono crops

Intercrop with coconut

1. Single row method (spacing 2 x 0.3 m)

14,000

10,000

2. Double row method (1.5 x 0.3 m)
(Two double 0.6 m)

27,000

16,000



Pretreatment of suckers
1. Insecticides
Mix selecron/ tokuthion 300 ml in 100 l of water, dip the suckers 5 minutes in this solution.
2. Fungicides
Mix ridomil 200 ml in 100 l of water, dip the suckers 5 minutes in this solution.


Hormone Application

Apply to getuniform fruit setting & off season fruit production


Time & Method of application

Five months before the harvesting. Should contain 30 - 35 leaves and the age at 8 - 10 months

Hormone

Trade Name

Applying Quantity

Application Rate/tree

1.CaC2

Calcium Carbite

30g + 1Lit. of water

50 ml

2. NAA

Plantifix

4.5 Lit. of water

50 ml

3. Ethylene

Ethral

1ml + 5Lit. of water

50 ml



Pineapple hybridization
Steps:- 1. Cross pollination

  • Followers opening at 9-10 AM
  • Not necessary to emasculate, not necessary to isolate the plants or flowers
  • Anthers collected to small box by forceps at around 10 AM
  • Single anther rubbed over the stigma with forceps
  • Pollinated flowers are net covered
  • Crossed fruits should be labeled
  • Ripen fruits are separately harvest for seed extraction

Steps:- 2. Collection & germination of seeds

  • Cut the ripen fruits & get the hybrid seeds
  • Clean the seeds with water
  • Seeds germination (4-6 weeks) - Seeds will be placed on bricks
  • Keep on a water bath
  • Half of the bricks should be get wet
  • It has to be covered with polyethylene or piece of flat glass

Steps:- 3. Nursery Management of Seedlings

  • 30-45 days old seedlings will be planted in the seedling trays & kept for 6 months
  • Seedlings will be replanted in the field nursery & kept for 6 months
  • Total period for nursery is about 1 year

Steps:-4. Evaluation of hybrid lines in the field

  • Lines should be evaluated by using fruit to row planting system
  • Spacing 1x2 m (All the seedlings of one fruit should plant in one row)
  • Plants should be selected for Gene-typically differences, Characters for high yields & qualities
  • Selected plants should be propagated by vegetative suckers
  • Progeny screening & data collection should be continued up to third generation


Steps:-5. Adaptability testing
Different locations (NCVT trials)

  • Single row system should be adapted (spacing 0.30 x 1.00 m)
  • Compare with recommended varieties
  • Growth, yields & quality characters
  • Data should be collected from the ratoon crops


Harvesting & post-harvest technology
Value Added Products

Cordials, canned products , jams, alcohol (wine), syrup, dehydrated products for confectionery, ice cream.

Economics & Marketing
Problems and Constraints in pineapple cultivation

1. Climate change - Drought and high rain fall
2. Less land availability
3. High investment
4. Lack of good varieties
5. Lack of planting material
6. Weed
7. High cost of inputs
8. Lack of laborers
9. Pest and diseases (esp. pineapple wilt)
10. Price fluctuations
11. Lack of technical knowledge


Harvesting & post-harvest technology
Value Added Products
Cordials, canned products, jams, alcohol (wine), syrup, dehydrated products for confectionery, ice cream.