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Guava

Guava : Psidium guajava L.

Introduction
Nutritive Values
(per 100g edible portion)

Energy

51.0 k cal

Protein

0.9 g

Fat

.3 g

Carbohydrates

11.2 g

Calcium

10.0 mg

Phosphorus

28.0 mg

Iron

1.4 mg

Thiamine

30.0 ug

Riboflavin

30.0 ug

Vit. C

212.0 mg


Medicinal Values
Good source of calcium & Vitamin C. Useful in hemorrhoids, juice suitable for invalids.

Major Growing Areas
Mostly in the Wet and Intermediate zones

Recommended Varieties
Bangkok Giant, Horana Red, Horana white, Pubudu and Kanthi (a dwarf variety)
Bangkok Giant Horana white
Horana Red Pubudu
Kanthi

Field Establishment
Ecological requirements

Annual rain fall 1000 - 4000 mm
Temperature 23o - 28oC (can tolerate temperatures as high as 45oC)
Elevation 1500 - 2000 m - (Suitable for all 3 zones. Dry intermediate and wet zones)
Soil requirements Sandy to clay loam
A wide range of pH - 4.5 - 9.0
Slight tolerance to salinity & water logging
Tolerant to drought
Propagation Patch budding (commonly used), Modified forkette budding, shield budding, air layering
Planting
Size of planting hole 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm
Spacing 4.5 - 5.0 m x 4.5 - 5.0 m


Crop Management
Nature of cultivation
Scattered; small scale cultivations and in home gardens.

Mulching
During dry spells improves fruit size

Fertilizing
N:P2OJ : K2O, 12:14:14 mixture as recommended by DOA.

Training & pruning
3-4 well spaced braches, aring at 60cm above ground.
Tree should be maintained at a 3 m height to facilitate harvesting.

Insect pest

Fruit fly (Bactocera spp.)

Characteristics

Control

Female fly pierces mature fruits & lays eggs

Covering immature fruits

Larvae feed on flesh, causing secondary infections & finally rotting of fruit

Harvesting before full maturity

 

Destroying ripe fruits fallen on ground

Use traps containing methyl euginol

 

Characteristics

Control

Thrips (Selenothrips rubrocinctus)

Nursery and young plants are attacked

Use of a systemic insecticide if the damage is severe. Fipronil, Imidachlorprid or Carbosulfan are effective

Both pupae & adult suck underneath of the leaf, leading to yellowish spots. This resulting in completely dried leaves causing seedling death

 
 

Characteristics

Control

Myloceras & Phylophaga spp.

Adult insect feeds on leaves at night and not seen during daytime

Use of a systemic insecticide, if damage is severe

Severe damages occur in some seasons of the year

 
 

Characteristics

Control

Leaf eating caterpillar

Caterpillar feeds on young leaves & the growing point by folding & webbing leaves

Removal of insects

 

This results in growth retardation of main stem and formation of many side shoots

Use of a systemic insecticide if the damage is severe


Diseases
Scab - (pestatotia spp)
Use of copper funigicides
Wilt disease - (Macrophoma spp and Fusarium spp)Uproot and removal of diseased plants parts & destroy

Harvesting & Post-harvest Technology
Fruiting commences
2 - 2.5 yrs of age. (budded materials)

Time taken to fruit maturity
120 - 150 days

Yield
Colour changes from dark green to light greenish yellow with the stalk attached. When plucking fruits removal of 2 leaves close to fruit stimulates the growth of flush with flowers.

Mean fruit vield of recommended varieties
 

t/ha/yr

Bangkok Giant

22.0

Pubudu

20.0

Horana White

20.0

Horan Red

17.9

Kanthi

20.0



Value Added Products
Jams, canned fruit, jelly, juice, flavoring agent.

Economics & Marketing
Availability
Year round
Recent Developments in Vegetative Propagation Techniques for Guava
In addition to commonly used patch method of budding following methods can also be practiced.

1. Wedge grafting:
Percentage success of wedge grafting is higher than that of patch method of budding. Also wedge grafted plants grow vigorously at initial stage of grafting.

2. Chip budding:
This can be practiced when the plant is not in active growth and the bark does not separate easily which is an advantage over patch budding.

3. Inarching:
Grafting of a large shoot while it is on the mother plant, so that a largely grown plant can be obtained as planting materials. This method of propagation can also be used as a method of reviving old trees.

4. Top working:
Guava can be top worked to replace the unwanted trees with high yielding varieties of good quality. Crown of the existing tree is removed leaving 1-2 branches for maintenance purposes. (Once new growth establishes these are removed). When new emerged shoots develop into suitable stem girth they are drip or patch budded.

Crop:Guava
Program :Crop Improvement

Activity

Responsibility

Indicators

Time Frame

Station

Officer

Maintence of guava germplasm.

Horana Homagama

M.K.Thanthirige

   

Variety evaluation
studies.

Aralaganwila

I.K.Warushamana

   


Program :Crop Protection

Activity

Responsibility

Indicators

Time Frame

Station

Officer

Control of guava diseases.

Horana

P.W.Alahakoon 

   

Control of fruit fly

Horana

G.Ratnasinghe

 

05 Yrs (2002-2007)



Programe :Planting Material Production

Activity

Responsibility

Indicators

Time Frame

Station

Officer

production of planting materials of recomended varieties.

Horana


M.K.Thantirige

 

03 Yrs
(2002-2005)